What windows are opened onto the existence and unity of God from the universe
In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
We shall show them Our signs in the whole of the outer world
and in themselves, until it becomes clear to them that it is indeed the truth.
Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over all things? (41:53)
A parable to set out to reach God
Supposing a miracle-displaying man wants to build a big palace, first he
lays its foundations firmly according to his purpose for building it. Next,
he divides it skilfully into apartments and rooms. Then, he furnishes those
apartments and rooms, and decorates them. After that, he illuminates the palace
with electric lights. Further, in order to show other skills of his and demonstrate
his continual bounty, he makes additions, changes and transformations in every
wing and apartment of the pal-ace. Also, he establishes a system to communicate
with every apartment and room, and opening a window in each room, he ensures
that he can be seen in his names and attributes.
Similarly�And God�s is the highest comparison�the Creator Who is beyond compare
and called by one thousand and one holy Names like the Wise Ruler and the Just
Judge, willed to make that palace of the universe, that tree of creation, which
is the macrocosm. He laid in six days the foundations of that palace, that tree,
and built the main body, with the principles of His Wisdom and rules of His
eternal Knowledge. Dividing it into higher and lower levels and branches, He
ramified and elaborated it with the principles of His Decree and Destiny. Then
He formed and organized creatures in groups, families and species and ordered
the life of each with the principles of His Art and Favouring. After that, He
adorned each thing and each world in a way particular to it; for example, He
adorned the sky with stars, and the earth with flowers. He manifested His Names
in those vast arenas where His universal laws and all-inclusive principles are
in force, and illuminated them. Following that, with the manifestations of His
Names the Most Merciful and the Most Compassionate, He came to the special aid
of man who cried at the pressure of those universal laws. That means, within
His universal and all-inclusive principles, He has special favours and help
and particular manifestations which encourage every being to turn to Him any
time it desires and ask Him for help for any of its needs. Also, in order that
His existence and Unity may be evident to beings, He opened windows on Himself
from all apartments, all levels of creation and worlds, all groups of existence
and all individuals, and all things, and left a telephone in every heart.
Now, referring those innumerable windows to the all-comprehensive Divine
Knowledge, the discussion of all of which is beyond our capacity, in a happy
correspondence with the thirty-three repetitions of the phrases of glorifying
and praising God and that of affirming His Greatness after each prescribed prayer,
we shall be content with a brief allusion to thirty-three of them, which originate
from the verses of the Qur�an.
The needs and demands of every thing are properly met in due time from somewhere
unknown and unexpected.
We are clearly witnessing that all things, the living ones particularly,
have numerous different needs and multi-form demands. Those needs and demands
of theirs are properly met in due time from somewhere unknown and unexpected,
which it is impossible for them to reach by themselves. They are unable themselves
to meet even the least of those needs. For an example, consider yourself: consider
the many needs you have to satisfy your external and inner senses and organs
which you are un-able to procure. You may compare all other living beings to
Thus, all those needs and demands and their gratification point, individually
and as a whole, to the existence of an Absolutely Necessary Being behind the
veil of the Unseen and His Unity, and show Him to the mind with His Names the
All-Munificent, the Most Compassionate, the Trainer and Up bringer, and the
Provider and Organizer.
A countenance proves itself to be an extremely brilliant stamp of Divine
While with respect to actual existence and individualization, things have
an infinite variety of potential forms, each is given, all at once and wisely,
a particular and extremely well-ordered countenance equipped with external and
inner senses with perfect wisdom, which bears a special mark distinguishing
the individual from all the other members of its species. The countenance therefore
proves itself to be an extremely brilliant stamp of Divine Oneness. Like each
face bearing witness in hundreds of ways to the existence of an All-Wise Maker
and pointing to His Unity, that stamp of Unity which the faces display as a
whole, shows to the eye of the mind that it is a seal belonging to the Creator
of all things.
Every things is given a particular form with perfect measure and order.
The huge army of plants and animals on the earth, which have hundreds of
thousands of species (Among those species are some whose numbers in a year exceed
the whole of the members of man-kind from the time of Adam to the end of the
world) are each given with perfect measure and order and without any confusion
and forgetting, a particular form and garment and particular provision and �weaponry�,
and each is trained and demobilized in a way particular to itself. This is a
stamp of the One of Unity, a stamp as brilliant as the sun, about which there
can be no doubt. Who other than the One with limitless Power, an all-encompassing
Knowledge, and an infinite Wisdom, can dare to have a hand in that administration,
which is infinitely wonderful? For if one unable to administer and train the
whole of those species and races all together, which exist one mixed with the
other, were to interfere with one of them, he would certainly cause a confusion.
Whereas, as is stated in the verse, Turn your gaze
again, do you see any fissure? (67:3),
there is no sign of any void or confusion. That means no one is able to have
a hand in His creation.
The prayers of every thing especially done in the tongue of potential and
disposition are answered.
The prayers which all seeds utter in the tongue of their disposition and
potentiality, all animals, in the tongue of their natural needs, and all those
compelled, in the tongue of compulsion, are all answered.
As each of those innumerable prayers, all evidently answered, bears witness
to and points to the necessary existence and Unity of God, all of them evidently
point to an All-Compassionate, All-Munificent and All-Answering Creator as a
whole and on a larger scale.
Despite coming into existence as if all of a sudden every being is given
perfectly beautiful and all the equipment necessary for living.
We see that things, especially living ones, come into existence as if all
of a sudden. While things coming into existence all of a sudden out of a simple
substance should be simple and coarse and without any art, they are created
so finely as requiring many skills, and embellished so carefully and delicately
as demanding a long time, and ornamented so artistically as needing numerous
tools, and made so elaborately as necessitating lots of materials.
So, the beautiful form given to each and all things all at once and the wonderful
artistry manifested on them testify to the necessary existence of an All-Wise
Maker and point to the Unity of His Lordship. Also, through their form and the
artistry they display, things as a whole point in a most brilliant way to a
Necessarily Existent Being Who is infinitely powerful and wise.
Signs for people who have sense
In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation
of night and day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the benefit
of mankind; in the water which God sends down from the sky and with which He
revives the earth after its death, and dispersing over it all kinds of beasts;
in the ordinance of the winds and clouds that are driven between earth and sky:
are signs for people who have sense. (2:164)
This verse, which demonstrates the necessary existence of God and His Unity,
is an extremely large window through which one of God�s Greatest Names is seen.
The following is what the verse means in brief.
- All of the worlds situated at the higher and lower levels of the universe
point to the same result in different tongues: it is the Lordship of a single
- Just as the well-organized and systematic movements in the heavens ending
in great results demonstrate the existence and Unity of a Majestic All-Powerful
One and the perfection of His Lordship, so also the tremendous changes on
the earth such as those witnessed in seasons, resulting in great, comprehensive
benefits, show the necessity of that Majestic All-Powerful One�s Unity and
the perfection of His Lordship.
- All the animals on land and sea are fed through perfect mercy, and given
various forms with perfect wisdom, and they are equipped with multi-form senses
and faculties with perfect Lordship. As each testifies to the existence of
that Majestic All-Powerful One and points to His Unity, so also as a whole
they demonstrate on a large scale the grandeur of His Divinity and the perfection
of His Lordship.
- Similarly, the well-formed plants in gardens and orchards and the ornate
flowers they produce, and the well-proportioned fruits replacing the flowers
and the rich embellishments the fruits display, all bear witness to the existence
of that All-Wise Maker and point to His Unity individually, and they show
in a splendid way the grace of His Mercy and the perfection of His Lordship
- Again, just as the drops sent from the atmosphere and charged with important
purposes, necessary consequences and benefits, demonstrate to their number
the necessary existence of that All-Wise Maker and His Unity and the perfection
of His Lordship, so also all the mountains on the earth and the various minerals
deposited in them for various purposes show, as firmly as the mountains, the
existence and Unity of that Wise Maker and the perfection of His Lordship.
- Also, just as the various, beautiful flowers decorating hills and plains
individually attest the necessary existence of an All-Wise Maker and point
to His Unity and collectively show the majesty of His Sovereignty and the
perfection of His Lordship, so too, the well-proportioned shapes and positions
of the leaves on trees and herbs and their rapturous, systematic movements
demonstrate to their number the necessary existence and Unity of that All-Wise
Maker and the perfection of His Lordship.
- All growing bodies, which have innately been equipped with various members
and systems to grow, begin to move in an ordered manner at the time of growth
and are directed toward yielding fruits. As each of them testifies to the
necessity of that All-Wise Maker�s existence and points to His Unity, so also
as a whole they demonstrate on a very large scale the comprehensiveness of
His Power, the inclusiveness of His Wisdom, the beauty of His Art, and the
perfection of His Lordship. Also, to establish in animal bodies their souls
and spirits with perfect wisdom, and to equip them with various systems with
perfect order, and to mobilize them for various services and purposes with
perfect wisdom�all this bears witness and points to the necessity of that
All-Wise Maker�s existence and His Unity to the number of animals or even
of their members and systems. Collectively, all those acts show His Mercy
and the perfection of His Lordship in a most brilliant way.
- All Divine inspirations coming to man to instruct him in all kinds of
knowledge and truths, and to animals to teach them how to procure their needs,
suggest the existence of a Most Compassionate Lord and point to His Lordship.
Also, like the rays of light coming forth from the eye and collecting all
visible objects into it, all the external and inner senses function each as
a key to a different world. This too demonstrates, as brightly as the sun,
the necessity of the existence of that All-Wise Maker, the All-Knowing Originator,
the Most Compassionate Creator, the All-Munificent Provider, and His Unity
and the perfection of His Lordship.
- Thus, the huge window consisting of twelve openings in twelve places shows
through a light of truth of twelve colours the Oneness and Singleness of Almighty
God and the perfection of His Lord-ship.
Although of various kinds and species, creatures resemble one another in
Creatures come into existence easily and, although of various kinds and species,
resemble one another in many ways. They are spread out on the earth with perfect
order and display a perfect pro-portion and equipment. As this demonstrates
on a broad scale the necessity of an All-Wise Maker�s existence and His Unity
and the perfection of His Power, the creation of innumerable, different well-composed
compound beings out of simple lifeless elements also testifies, to the number
of those beings, to the necessity of that All-Wise Maker�s existence and points
to His Unity, and those beings show as a whole the perfection of His Power and
His Unity in a most brilliant way.
Also, there is an infinite degree of differentiation and compounding within
infinite profusion. For example, while seeds and roots exist under earth in
extremely confused position, they are amazingly distinguished in growth, and
like the particles of food entering the body in confusion being separated and
shared out among organs and tissues with perfect measure and wisdom, the particles
going into trees in confusion are distinguished and distributed among leaves,
flowers and fruits. This shows the necessity of the existence of that absolutely
Wise, Knowing and Powerful One and His Unity and the perfection of His Power.
Also, it demonstrates the grandeur and perfection of His Lordship that, making
the world of particles into a boundless, vast field, He sows and harvests it
every moment with perfect wisdom and obtains fresh crops of different worlds
from it, and causes those unconscious, powerless and ignorant particles to perform
innumerable, systematic functions just as if they were extremely learned, conscious
Thus a large window is opened onto knowledge of God through these four ways,
and they display the All-Wise Maker to the mind on a large scale.
The testimony of all the Prophets
The testimony of all the Prophets, upon them be peace, who are those with
luminous spirit among mankind, based on their manifest and evident miracles,
the testimony of all the saints, who are those distinguished with their illumined
hearts, relying on their wonder-making and spiritual discoveries, and the testimony
of all the purified scholars, who with their enlightened minds rely on their
re-searches and quests for truth, to the necessary existence and Unity of One,
the Creator of All Things, and the perfection of His Power, form a truly vast
and enlightening window, through which the position of His Lordship shows itself
The worship performed by beings in the universe
The worship performed by all beings in the universe evidently demonstrates
an Absolutely-Worshipped One. Those who penetrate the world of spirits and the
inner dimension of things and meet with the angels and spirit beings, testify
that all spirit beings and angels worship an Eternally-Worshipped One in perfect
obedience, and all living beings are observed to be performing duties in perfect
order in a manner resembling worship, and all inanimate things evidently render
services with perfect submission in a like manner. As all this shows the necessary
existence and Unity of a True Object of Worship, so too the true knowledge of
all saints, which bears the weight of consensus, and the fruitful thanks of
all the thankful, and the blessed recitations of all those who recite God�s
Names, and the praises, which cause the increase of Divine bounties, of all
those who praise God, and the pronouncements and descriptions of Divine Unity,
based on decisive proofs, of all those who believe in it, and the true love
of all lovers of God, and the true will and desires of all those who seek Him,
and the earnest searching and inclinations of all those who turn to Him, all
demonstrate the necessary existence and Unity of that Eternally-Worshipped One,
the One Who is Recognized, Mentioned, Praised, One Beloved, Desired and Sought,
and the perfection of His Lordship.
Also, the acceptable worship and supplications of perfected people, and the
spiritual radiance, visions and illuminations resulting from them, again demonstrate
the necessary existence and Unity of that Everlasting and Eternally-Worshipped
One and the perfection of His Lordship.
Thus these three aspects open up a broad, light-giving window onto Divine
The mutual helping and solidarity of beings in the universe
And He sends down water from the heaven and brings forth with
it crops and fruits as provision for you, and He has made subject to you the
ships so that they sail through the sea by His command, and He has made the
rivers subject to you; and He has made subject to you the sun and the moon,
both pursuing their courses, and He has made subject to you the night and the
day; and He gives you of all that you ask Him. If you were to count God�s bounties,
you could not enumerate them. (14:32�4)
The mutual helping and solidarity of beings in the universe and the fact
that they respond to one another�s call for assistance show that all creatures
are trained by a single Instructor, are administered by a single Director, are
at the disposal of a single Disposer, and are the servants of a single Master.
For through a universal law of mutual helping, the sun cooks the things necessary
for the lives of living beings on the earth by the command of the Lord, and
the moon acts as a calendar, and light, air, water and sustenance hasten to
the assistance of animate beings, and plants hasten to the assistance of animals,
and animals and plants together hasten to the assistance of human beings, and
even the members of the body hasten to the assistance of one another, and the
particles of provision hasten to the assistance of the cells of the body. This
most wise and generous mutual assistance among those unconscious beings, and
their responding to one another�s needs and their supporting one another under
a law of munificence and grace, a law of compassion and care and a principle
of mercy, demonstrate, clearly and evidently, that they are the servants, officers,
and creatures of a unique One of Unity, a peerless, Eternally-Besought-of-All,
an Absolutely Powerful, Absolutely Knowledgeable, Absolutely Compassionate,
Absolutely Munificent, Necessarily-Existent One.
Through recognizing their One Creator can all spirits and hearts be delivered
from the distress and confusion.
Beware, only in the remembrance of God do hearts find rest.
Only through recognizing their One Creator can all spirits and hearts be
delivered from the distress and confusion arising from misguidance, and the
spiritual pains arising from that distress. They can be saved by attributing
all beings to a Maker of Unity and find rest in remembrance of One God. For,
as is proved in the Twenty-Second Word, if all those innumerable creatures are
not attributed to a single being, it becomes necessary to ascribe a single thing
to numberless causes, and then to explain the existence of a single thing becomes
as difficult as all creatures. For if ascribed to God, innumerable things are
attributed to a Single Being, and if they are not ascribed to Him, then it becomes
necessary to attribute every single thing to numberless causes. Then a single
fruit becomes as difficult as the universe. For, just as if a single soldier
is put under the command of a hundred different officers, a hundred difficulties
will arise, and if the commandment of a hundred soldiers is given to a single
officer, they will be as easy to command as a single soldier, so too the coincidence
of numerous different causes in the creation of a single thing is difficult
to the hundredth degree. If, by contrast, the creation of numerous things is
given to a single being, then it becomes easy to the hundredth degree. Therefore
it is only belief in the Unity of the Creator and Knowledge of God which will
deliver man from the endless distresses arising from the curiosity and desire
to find the truth inherent in his (man�s) nature.
There are endless difficulties and pains in the way of unbelief and associating
partners with God, so that that way is manifestly impossible and contains no
truth. By contrast, in conformity with the ease of the creation of beings and
their multiplicity and the subtle art they have, there is infinite ease in giving
their existence and administration to One God only. That way is certainly necessary
and the truth itself.
All things, have a form and well-measured proportions according to the functions
they are to perform.
Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High, Who has created
and made well-proportioned and orderly; and Who has determined (the shape, life-span
and nature of all things) and guided (them each towards its own way). (87:1-3)
All things, and especially living ones, have a form and well-measured proportions
according to the functions they are to perform in the world, as though they
emerged from a mould of wisdom. Each has been given distinct, definite, certain
shape with curves and twists according to the benefits and uses expected of
them. The changes, outward and inward, they undergo throughout their lives are
again according to certain measures and purposes determined for their lives.
All this shows clearly that those innumerable creatures, whose shapes and proportions
have been planned in the sphere of determining of an All-Powerful One of Majesty,
an All-Wise One of Perfection, and who have been given forms and bodies in the
workshop of Divine Power, point to the necessity of His existence and bear witness
in endless tongues to His Unity and the perfection of His Power.
Look at your own body and its members and ponder over the uses and benefits
of the curves and twists in the shape of each, and see the perfection of the
power embedded in perfect wisdom!
The testimony of disposition or nature is not rejected.
There is nothing that does not glorify Him with praise. (17:44)
All things mention and glorify their Creator each in its own tongue. The
glorifications that all creatures do either vocally or in the tongue of their
lives and dispositions show the existence of a single Holy One.
The testimony of disposition or nature is not rejected. As for the proof
produced by practical life, especially when it issues from many aspects of that
life, it cannot provoke doubt. See! how each of the well-ordered forms of those
creatures which testify through their innate dispositions and bear witness in
innumerable ways in the language of their lives and manners, and which all turn
to a single center like concentric circles, is an expressive tongue. Their well-proportioned
structures and organizations are each a tongue of testimony, and their well-organized
lives are tongues of glorification. As is persuasively argued in the Twenty-fourth
Word, their glorifications and exaltations expressed in all these tongues are
testimony to a single Most Holy Being and demonstrate His necessary existence,
as certainly as light shows the sun, and point to the perfection of His Divinity.
There is nothing but its treasuries with us.
Say: in whose hand is the dominion of all things? (23:88)
There is nothing but its treasuries are with us. (15:21)
There is not a moving creature but He has grasp of its forelock. (11:56)
Surely my Lord records and preserves all things. (11:27)
The verses above state that:
- In all circumstances and aspects of its life and existence, everything
needs a single Creator of Majesty. We look at creatures in the universe and
see that an absolute force is manifested within absolute weakness, and there
are the impressions and inscriptions of an absolute power in absolute impotence.
For example, the awakening of the life-force in the seeds and roots of plants
is strikingly extraordinary.
- Then, there are manifestations of an absolute wealth within absolute poverty
and sterility, like the poverty of earth and trees in winter and their glittering
profusion in spring.
- Again, the sparks of an absolute life are observed in absolutely lifeless
matter, for in-stance in the transformation of mineral elements into living
- Or again, the manifestations of an all-encompassing consciousness in absolute
ignorance, as in the manner that everything, from particles to stars, acts
as if consciously conforming with the order of the universe and the principles
of life and the demands of wisdom.
- Thus, this power within impotence, and strength within weakness, and wealth
within poverty, and flowing life and consciousness within solidity and ignorance,
necessarily and evidently open up windows on every side onto the necessary
existence and Unity of One Absolutely Powerful, Absolutely Strong, Absolutely
Rich, Absolutely Knowing and Living and Self-Subsistent. In their totality
they point to a luminous highway on a large scale.
Everything is clothed in a form tailored to the receptivity of its nature.
He has created everything in the best way. (32:7)
Everything is clothed in a form tailored to the receptivity of its nature
with perfect measure and order, and assembled with the finest art, by the most
direct method, in the best shape and the easiest manner, and in most practicable
structure. Look at the �dress� of birds, for example: see how easily they can
ruffle or set their feathers and yet use them continually. Giving things bodies
and dressing them in forms in a wise manner with no waste and nothing in vain,
bears witness, to the number of those things, to the necessary existence of
an All-Wise Maker and points to an Absolutely Powerful and Knowing One.
Universal purposiveness and wisdom
The order and organization in creation and management of creatures, which
are recruited season by season on the earth, manifest a universal purposiveness
and wisdom. Since an attribute cannot be without the one it qualifies, that
universal wisdom necessarily shows a Wise One. The wonderful adornment within
that veil of wisdom evidently shows an all-embracing grace. That all-embracing
grace necessarily shows a Gracious, Munificent Creator. The all-encompassing
favouring and benevolence within the veil of the grace show evidently an all-encompassing
mercy. That all-encompassing mercy necessarily shows an All-Merciful, All-Compassionate
One. The sustenance and provision of all living creatures on that veil of mercy,
all perfectly and appropriately for their needs, show clearly an upbringing
and training providence and a compassionate Lordship. That training and administering
necessarily show an All-Munificent Provider.
Each of the creatures on the earth, thus raised with perfect wisdom, adorned
with perfect graciousness, favoured with perfect mercy, and nurtured with perfect
caring and compassion, bears witness to the necessary existence of an All-Wise,
Munificent, Compassionate, Providing Maker, and points to His Unity. So also
consider all together the all-encompassing wisdom which is manifest on the earth
as a whole with everything on it�it shows clearly a purpose and will; and the
perfect grace encompassing all creatures in accordance with the wisdom; and
the all-embracing mercy which comprises both the grace and wisdom and touches
all creatures; and the most generous sustaining and nurturing which comprises
the mercy, wisdom and grace and touches all living creatures. Just as the seven
colors form the light which illuminates the earth undoubtedly shows the sun,
so too that grace within wisdom, and mercy within grace, and sustaining and
nurturing within mercy, show brilliantly and on a vast scale and at a high degree,
the Unity and Lordship of a Most Wise, Munificent, Compassionate, Providing
Absolute order despite infinite liberality; absolute balance despite absolute
speed in creation; absolute beauty despite absolute multiplicity and variety;
absolute artistry despite absolute ease in creation; absolute correspondence
despite very great distances; perfect differentiation despite utter intermingling;
absolute value despite absolute abundance.
Surely in the heavens and the earth are signs for the believers.
- On observing the face of the earth in summertime, we see that an infinite
generosity and absolute liberality, which could be expected to cause disorder
and confusion, are apparent within an infinite order and harmony. See all
the plants which adorn the face of the earth.
- Also, the absolute speed in creation of things, which would normally result
in imbalance and loss of decorum, is observed within a perfect equilibrium.
See all the fruits which adorn the face of the earth.
- Also, the absolute multiplicity and variety, which would normally bring
about triviality, indeed, ugliness, is apparent within perfect beauty of art.
See all the flowers which gild the face of the earth.
- Also, the absolute ease in creation of things, which would normally cause
simplicity and lack of art, is seen within an art, skill and attention of
infinite degree. See all the seeds, which are like the tiny containers and
programs of the members of plants and trees on the earth and the small cases
containing their life-histories.
- Also, the great distances, which would normally necessitate difference
and diversity, appear within an absolute correspondence and conformity. See
all the varieties of cereal grains sown in all parts of the earth.
- Also, the utter intermingling, which would normally cause confusion and
mess, is on the contrary to be seen within perfect differentiation and separation.
Consider how seeds, which are cast into the earth all mixed-up together and
resemble one another with regard to their substance, are perfectly differentiated
when they are about to sprout, and how the various substances entering trees
are separated out perfectly for the leaves, flowers, and fruits, and how the
various foods which enter the stomach all mixed-up together are separated
out perfectly for the various members and cells of the body. Consider all
this and see the perfect power within perfect wisdom.
- Also, the infinite abundance and profusion, which would normally cause
triviality and worthlessness, are seen to be most valuable and most worthwhile
in regard to the creatures and art on the earth. Consider among all those
innumerable wonders of art only the varieties of mulberry, those sweets of
Divine Power, on the table of the All-Merciful One on the earth, and observe
the perfect mercy combined with the perfect art.
- So, just as daytime shows the light, and the light, the sun, the great
value together with or de-spite the infinite profusion; and within the infinite
profusion, the infinite differentiation and separation together with or despite
the boundless intermingling; and within the infinite differentiation and separation,
the infinite conformity and resemblance together with or despite the great
distances; and within infinite resemblance, the infinite care and attention
in the making alongside or despite the infinite ease and facility; and within
the most beautiful making, the infinite equilibrium, balance, and lack of
waste along with or despite the absolute speed and rapidity; and within utmost
lack of of waste, the highest degree of beauty of art together with or despite
the utmost abundance and multiplicity; and within the highest degree of art,
the absolute order and harmony together with the utmost liberality�all bear
wit-ness to the necessary existence, Unity and Oneness of an All-Powerful
One of Majesty, an All-Wise One of Perfection, an All-Compassionate One of
Grace and Beauty, and the perfection of His Power and the grace and beauty
of His Lordship. They demonstrate the meaning of the verse,
His are the Most Beautiful Names (20:8).
Perfection in structure and composition
Have they not considered the truth contained in the inner dimension
of the heavens and the earth? (7:185)
A perfect, well-designed and artistic construction like a palace evidently
points to a perfect act�that is, a building points to an act of construction.
A perfect, well-performed act necessarily points to a perfect �actor�, to a
skilful master-builder. The title of a skilful master-builder clearly points
to a perfect attribute, to an artistic ability. A perfect attribute, a perfect
competence in an art evidently points to the existence of a perfect capacity.
A perfect capacity or potentiality points to the existence of a noble spirit,
an exalted being.
So, likewise, the ever-renewed, refreshed and replaced works filling the
face of the earth, in-deed the universe, evidently show acts of perfect degree.
Those acts taking place in an infinitely wise and well-ordered system clearly
show an agent or �actor� with perfect titles and names. For, as every-body knows,
well-arranged and wise acts cannot be without someone doing them, The infinitely
perfect titles point to the infinitely perfect attributes of that agent. For
just as according to grammar, the active participles and the nouns denoting
one who does something� like doer, actor, and speaker etc.�are derived from
verbs, so also the origins of nouns in Arabic are adjectives. The perfect attributes
point to perfect personal potentialities, and those perfect potentialities point
most certainly to the one with a limitless degree of perfection.
Thus, since the works of art and creatures in the whole of the universe are
each a perfect work, and since each bears witness to an act, and the act to
a name, and the name to an attribute, the attribute to a potentiality, and the
potentiality to a being, then�as well as testifying to their number to the necessary
existence and Unity of a single Maker of Majesty�they constitute as a whole
a �stairway� of knowledge of God leading to Him in a form as strong as the chain
of creatures, and a proof of truth in series which is indubitable in all aspects.
So, O poor, heedless unbeliever! With what can you break this proof as strong
as the chain of beings? With what can you shut up this window which has innumerable
openings to show the rays of truth to the number of creatures. What veil of
heedlessness can you draw across it?
Innumerable instances of wisdom attached to heavenly objects and earthly
The seven heavens and the earth and all in them glorify Him.
There is nothing that does not glorify Him. (17:44)
According to the meaning of the verses above, the Majestic Maker has attached
to the heavenly bodies so many instances of wisdom and meanings that, as if
to express His Majesty and Grace, He has adorned the heavens with suns, moons,
and stars. He has also attached to the creatures in the atmosphere such instances
of wisdom and meanings that it is as if He was making the atmosphere speak in
words like lightning, thunder, and drops of rain. He also teaches His perfect
Wisdom and the beauty of His Mercy.
Also, just as He makes the earth speak in its meaningful words like plants
and animals and thereby shows the perfection of His Art to the whole of the
universe, so too, by making plants and trees speak in their words of leaves,
flowers, and fruits, He again demonstrates the perfection of His Art and the
beauty of His Mercy; and by making flowers and fruits speak in words of seeds
and pollen, He teaches the subtleties of His Art and the perfection of His Lordship
to conscious beings.
Among these countless words of glorification, we shall consider the manner
in which a flower or an ear of wheat expresses its glorification and we shall
find out how it bears witness.
Each plant and tree demonstrates its Maker in numerous tongues in such a
way that it amazes careful observers, and causes them to utter, �All glory be
to God! How excellently it bears witness!�
Indeed, the glorifications of each plant at the time of its blossoming and
growing ears or spikes�the time when it speaks in smiles�are beautiful like
itself and evident. For the order or sys-tem displaying the wisdom or purposiveness
expressed in the speaking of all flowers and in the tongues of well-formed spikes
or ears and in the words of well-proportioned seeds and well-made grains, is
in a certain measure which visibly points to knowledge. The measure is in the
design of an art which shows skill. The design of the art is in an adornment
which demonstrates grace and munificence. The adornment is in agreeable fragrances
which show mercy and benevolence. These meaningful states of things one within
the other form such a tongue of testimony that they both define their Majestic
Maker with His Names and describe Him with His Attributes and exemplify the
manifestations of His Names and express His being loved and recognized.
So, hearing such a testimony as this from a single flower, if you are able
to give ear to the voices of all flowers in all the gardens of the Lord on the
face of the earth and hear how powerfully they announce the necessary existence
and Unity of the Majestic Maker, will you still have any questions and doubts
Now come and look at a tree carefully! With its leaves appearing in spring
all regularly and its flowers opening all proportionately and its fruits growing
and ripening in wisdom and mercy and itself dancing with the blowing of breezes,
consider its fine expressiveness. Then consider the exact balance in the wise
order illustrated with the words of fruits smiling with a manifestation of mercy
and in the tongue of blossoms smiling with a joy of grace and the leaves becoming
green with a hand of munificence. Also, consider the delicate arts and designs
in the balance showing justice and exact measure, and the various beautiful
sweet smells showing mercy and benevolence in skilfully-made designs and ornaments,
and the seeds and stones that are each a miracle of Power in sweet tastes. All
this demonstrates in an extremely manifest way the necessary existence and Unity
of an All-Wise Maker, All-Munificent, All-Compassion-ate, All-Benevolent, Bestower
of Bounties, All-Beautifying, One Making Excellent, and the beauty of His Mercy
and the perfection of His Lordship. If you can hear all together the tongues
of the dispositions of all trees on the earth, you will see what beautiful gems
there are in the treasury of Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies
The wisdom and art displayed by universal elements
Glory be to Him in Whose hand is the dominion of all things.
There is nothing but its treasuries are with Us and We send it not down but
with a known, determined measure. We loose the winds as fertilizers drivers
of clouds to make an electric current between them and send down from the sky
blessed water and provide you with it; you are not the ones who store it. (15:21�2)
Just as a perfect wisdom and grace and beauty of art are apparent in particulars,
results and de-tails, so also the universal elements, which seem to be in confusion
and are fancied to be random and coincidental, take up positions dictated by
wisdom and art. Thus, as is pointed out by its other wise services, light radiates
so as to show and expose to view the creatures of God on the earth by the leave
of the Lord. This means light is employed by an All-Wise Maker Who makes visible
by it His unique arts in the exhibitions in the market of the world.
Now consider the winds: as is pointed to by the other benefits they provide,
and the functions they perform wisely and generously, they hasten to carry out
extremely numerous and important duties. This means that that movement of theirs
in waves is a being employed, a being dispatched, a being utilized by an All-Wise
Maker. That movement is a speedy endeavouring to carry out the orders of the
Now consider springs, streams, and rivers! Their welling up out of the earth
and out of mountains is not by chance. For as is testified to by their benefits
and uses, the results of Divine Mercy, and as is demonstrated by their being
stored up in mountains according to a measure of need, and by their being sent
according to a measure of wisdom, they are subjugated and stored up by an All-Wise
Lord, and they well up in ardent obedience to His commands.
Now consider all the varieties of stones and jewels and minerals in the earth!
The purposes and the benefits connected to them and their being prepared and
arranged appropriately to the needs and necessities of human and animal life
show that their decorativeness and beneficial properties are by the decoration,
arrangement, organization, and fashioning of an All-Wise Maker.
Now consider the flowers and fruits! Their smiles, tastes, beauties, embroideries,
and scents are each like an invitation and menu on the table of an All-Munificent
Maker, a Compassionate Bestower of Bounties; they are given as various invitations
and menus to each species of beings through their different colors, scents and
Now consider the birds! A certain indication that their twittering and chirruping
is an All-Wise Maker�s enabling them to vocalize is the amazing way in which
they communicate their feelings to one another with those sounds, and express
Now consider the clouds! A certain indication that the pattering of the rain
is not a meaningless sound and that the crashing of thunder and lightning is
not a futile noise is that such strange atmospheric events as those are made
to happen in vast space and that drops of rain are milked out of them with which
to feed the living creatures on the earth so needy and longing for them. All
show that that pattering and crashing are most meaningful and full of purposive
wisdom. For at the command of an All-Munificent Lord, the rain calls out to
those longing for it: �Good news for you! I am coming!�
Now look at the sky and consider carefully only the moon out of innumerable
bodies in it! The important instances of wisdom attached to it in connection
with the earth demonstrate that its motion is by the command of an All-Powerful
and Wise One.
Thus, the universal elements we have mentioned from the light to the moon
open in large measure a most broad window. They proclaim and show the Unity
of a Necessarily Existent One, and the perfection of His Power, and grandeur
of His Sovereignty.
The truth contained in this Window occurred to me on one occasion in verse
The radiance of light is through Your illuminating and making
things known through it;
The succession of ages like waves is through Your dispatching and employing
Glory be to You, how mighty is Your rule!
The gushing out and flowing forth of rivers is through Your storing them up
and subjugating them.
The formation and decoration of stones is through Your arranging and fashioning
Glory be to You, how unique and splendid is Your Wisdom!
The smiling of flowers is through Your adorning and beautifying them.
The emergence of fruits in splendour is through Your bestowal and favouring.
Glory be to You, how beautiful is Your Art!
The singing of birds is through Your making them speak and communicate with
The hymning of rain is through Your sending it down, Your bestowal.
Glory be to You, how vast is Your Mercy!
The motion of moons is through Your determining, Your arrangement, Your directing,
Glory be to You, how brilliant Your proofs, how clear Your evidences!
The sun, constitutes a window onto the existence and Unity of the Maker
of the universe.
The sun runs its course to its place destined, that is the
determining of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing. (36:38)
The sun, the lamp of the universe, constitutes a window onto the existence
and Unity of the Maker of the universe, which is as brilliant and radiant as
the sun itself. Indeed, despite their great differences with regard to size,
position, and speed, the twelve planets including the earth, known as the solar
system, move�revolve�with perfect order and wisdom and perfect balance without
even a second�s confusion, and are bound to the sun through a Divine law known
as gravity, that is, they follow their leader. This demonstrates on a large
scale the grandeur of Divine Power and the Unity of the Lord. For you may compare
how tremendous a Power and Wisdom are engaged in having those life-less bodies,
those vast, unconscious masses, rotate as they do, and in employing them with
infinitely perfect order and balance in various ways and over varying distances
and in varying motions. If chance were to interfere in this vast and complex
event to the slightest degree, it would cause an explosion so great as it would
scatter the universe. If it were to stop the motion of one of them for a minute,
it would cause it to leave its orbit and collide with another planet. You can
imagine how awe-some would be the collusion of bodies thousands of times bigger
than the earth.
Referring to the All-Encompassing Knowledge of God the wonders of the solar
system, that is, the twelve planets, which are the followers and fruits of the
sun, we shall only consider the earth, our planet, which is here before our
eyes. We see that this planet of ours is made to travel on a long journey around
the sun by a command of the Lord to carry out a most important duty�as is described
in The Third Letter�in a way to demonstrate the grandeur of the Lord�s imperial
Power and Majesty and the loftiness of Divine Sovereignty and the perfection
of His Mercy and Wisdom. Like a ship under the command of the Lord, it has been
filled with God�s wonderful creatures and made like a moving place of recreation
for His conscious servants. The moon has been �attached� to it with precise
reckoning for mighty instances of wisdom, like being an hour-hand telling the
time, and given various mansions through which to journey. Thus, these aspects
of this blessed planet of ours prove the necessary existence of an All-Powerful
One and His Unity with a testimony as strong as the earth itself. You can make
an analogy with the rest of the solar system from this.
Furthermore, the sun is made to turn on its own axis like a spinning-wheel,
in order to wind into a ball the immaterial threads called gravity and tie the
planets with them and set them in order. The sun is also impelled together with
its planets at a huge speed towards, according to one theory, the constellation
Lyra or the �sun of suns�. This most certainly occurs by the Power and at the
command of the All-Majestic One, the Monarch of Eternity. It is as if He makes
the solar system perform a maneuver like an army composed of His soldiers under
orders, and so demonstrates the majesty of His Lordship.
The earth shows a light of Divine Unity as broad as the universe.
Have We not made the earth a cradle, and the mountains masts?
We have created you as pairs. (78:6-8)
Look at the works of God�s Mercy, how He revives the earth after its death!
- The earth is like a head which has hundreds of thousands of mouths. In
each mouth are hundreds of thousands of tongues and each tongue has hundreds
of thousands of proofs, each of which testifies in numerous ways to the necessary
existence and Unity of an All-Majestic One Who is powerful over all things
and knows everything, and His sacred Attributes and Beautiful Names.
- Considering the beginning of the creation of the earth, a liquid matter
was made into rock and out of rock, earth was created. Had it remained as
fluid, it could not have been habitable. If it had remained as rock, hard
like iron, it would not have been suitable for use. So it is certain that
the Wisdom of an All-Wise Maker, Who is aware of the needs of the earth�s
inhabitants, gave it its present form.
- Also, the stratum of earth was laid over the feet of the masts of mountains
so that the earth could find an outlet through them from its internal quakes
and continue its duty and movements without any diversion. Mountains also
save the face of the earth from the invasion of seas. Additionally, they serve
as treasuries for the vital necessities of living creatures, and combing out
the air, they purify it of harmful gasses. Furthermore, they store up waters,
and are sources of other minerals necessary for living beings.
- Thus, with all these and other duties and aspects of theirs, mountains
decisively and strongly testify to the necessary existence and Unity of an
Absolutely Powerful and All-Wise, Compassionate One.
- Also, consider the wonderful kinds of art on the face of the earth! How
wisely elements have been charged with duties! How beautifully they look after
the All-Merciful One�s guests on the earth at the command of a Powerful, Wise
One, and hasten to serve them!
- Also, among unique and wonderful works of art, consider those lines of
embroidery on the multi-colored face of the earth displaying striking instances
of wisdom, and see how He has made brooks and streams, seas and rivers, mountains
and hills serve as both a dwelling and a means of transport appropriate to
certain varieties of His creatures and servants. Then, populating the earth
with hundreds of thousands of species of plants and animals with perfect wisdom
and order and causing it to prosper with life, and after discharging those
inhabitants in regular cycles from their duties through death, re-filling
it again regularly in the form of �revival after death�, testify to the necessary
existence and Unity of an All-Powerful One of Majesty, an All-Wise One of
Perfection, in hundreds of thousands of tongues.
- In short: since the earth, whose face is a place of exhibition of wonders
of art and an assembly arena of exquisite creatures and a thoroughfare for
the troops of creatures and a place of worship and dwelling for the ranks
of His servants, is like the heart of the whole of the universe, it shows
a light of Divine Unity as broad as the universe.
Life as a most brilliant miracle of God
He has created death and life. (67:2)
- Life is the most luminous and most beautiful of the miracles of Divine
Power and the most brilliant and strongest of the proofs of Divine Unity.
It is also the most comprehensive and most polished of the mirrors to the
manifestations of the Eternally Be-sought-of-All.
- Life makes known by itself the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent One with
all His Names and qualities. For life is a light compounded of the manifestations
of many of the Divine Attributes together. Just as the seven colors are present
compounded in light and various medicinal substances in natural confections,
so too life is a reality compounded of many Divine Attributes. Some of those
attributes develop through feelings and become distinct, while most of them
make themselves felt through sentiments and emotions. They make themselves
known by �boiling� in life.
- Life also comprises providence, mercy, grace and wisdom, which are the
most substantial elements in the maintenance and administration of the universe.
It is as if life brings them along with itself wherever it goes. For example,
when life enters a body, the Names the All-Wise also manifests itself therein,
and builds and arranges that �nest� of life with wisdom appropriately. The
Name the All-Munificent and the All-Compassionate manifest themselves at the
same instant and furnish and decorate that dwelling of life in accordance
with its needs and bestow on it all kinds of favours for the continuation
and perfection of life respectively. Further, the Name the Provider is also
observed to manifest Itself in supplying life with all material and spiritual
nourishment necessary for its maintenance and flourishing, and It stores up
a certain amount of that nourishment in its body. This means that life is
like a focus where various Names or Attributes meet or, rather, are united
into one another to form a single entity. It is as if life is entirely knowledge;
yet it is power at the same time, as it is also wisdom and mercy, etc. So,
on account of its so comprehensive nature, life is a mirror to the Eternally
Besought-of-All reflecting the qualities of the Essence of the Divine Being.
It is because of this that the Necessarily-Existent One, Who is the Ever-Living
and Self-Subsistent, creates life in the greatest profusion and abundance
and exhibits it. He also concentrates all things around life to make them
serve it, for life has a very great, important duty.
- Indeed, it is not something easy and an ordinary duty to be a mirror to
God as the Eternally Besought-of-All. The innumerable new lives and spirits,
the essences or identities of lives, which we constantly witness being brought
into existence all instantly from nothing, show the necessary existence, sacred
Attributes and Beautiful Names of the Necessarily-Existent, Ever-Living and
Self-Subsistent One, as rays of light show the sun. Just as if one did not
recognize the sun and admit its existence, one would have to deny the light
pervading daytime, so too the one who does not recognize the Sun of Oneness,
Who is the Ever-Living and Self-Subsistent, and the Giver of Life and the
One Causing to Die, should deny the existence of the living beings filling
the face of the earth from the beginning of time to its end. One should therefore
admit himself to be like an unconscious, most ignorant being.
Death as a strong evidence of God�s Oneness and Permanence
There is no god but He. All things are perishing except His
�Face;� His is the sovereignty and unto Him you are being returned. (28:88)
Death is a proof of Divine Lordship to the degree of life and an extremely
strong evidence of His Oneness.
According to the meaning of the verse, He has
created death and life (67:2),
death is not total non-existence or extinction, nor absolute annihilation or
decay without one who authors it, rather as is pointed out in The First Letter,
it is a discharge from worldly services by an All-Wise Author, and a change
of place and renewal of body, and being freed from duties and a release from
the prison of the body, and a pre-determined and well-ordered work of wisdom.
Just as the lively face of the earth and creatures and animate beings on
it testify to the necessity of an All-Wise Maker�s existence and His Unity,
so too, those living creatures bear witness through their death to the Oneness
and Eternity of an Ever-Living, Permanent One.
Living beings testify through their lives to the existence of a Necessarily-Existent
One and through their death they bear witness to the Eternity and Oneness of
an Ever-Living Permanent One. For example, the face of the earth is a living
thing and shows the Maker through all its features and orderliness. When it
dies, that is, when winter covers that dead face with its white shroud, it distracts
the views of mankind from the earth. Or, attention is diverted through this
wintry corpse of spring into the past and a broader spectacle appears to the
eye. That is, all the past springs, each of which was a miracle of Divine Power
covering the face of the earth, urge the conviction that a new spring will come
and the face of the earth will be revived and filled with living creatures once
more. All the springs past and the face of the earth (which has been experiencing
the cycles of life and death for millions of years) bear witness to the necessary
existence, Unity, Permanence and Eternity of an All-Majestic Maker, an All-Powerful
One of Perfection, a Self-Subsistent, Permanent One, so brilliantly, so strongly,
and on so vast a scale, and present proofs so clear, that one could not help
but proclaim: I have believed in God, the One, the Single.
In short: According to the meaning of He revives
the earth after its death, as this lively earth testifies to the Maker
through spring, it attracts attention through its death to the miracles of Divine
Power arranged on the two wings of time, the past and future. In place of a
single spring, it shows thousands, and points to thousands of miracles of Power
in place of a single one. The testimony of all of those springs is more decisive
than that of this present one. For the springs that have passed away into the
past have gone together with their apparent causes, and been replaced by new
ones like them-selves. This means that the apparent causes mean nothing. An
All-Powerful One of Majesty creates them and dispatches them. However, He makes
them dependent on certain causes due to His Wisdom. As for the lively faces
of the earth arranged in sequence in time to come, they bear witness more forcefully.
For, while there is yet no sign of them, yet they will be made, each originally
and, after being sent to perform definite duties, each will be removed.
Just as relativity shows absoluteness, so does contingency shows necessity.
A beaten one points to the one who beat. A work of art necessarily shows
an artist. Something born requires the existence of something giving birth.
Being below implies being above. And so on. Like all relative things or qualities
in pairs such as these which exist in relation to each other and re-quire the
existence of each other, the contingency in the particulars of the universe
as well as in it as a whole�that is, it is equally possible for something to
come into existence or not�shows necessity. The being or becoming or the being
acted upon observed in the particulars and in the universe as a whole show activity.
Their being created shows the activity of creating. Multiplicity and composition
observed in all of them necessitates unity. Necessity, acting, doing, creating
and unity necessarily and evidently demand the attributes necessary, active,
creative and one, which are not contingent, passive, multiple, composed and
created. That being so, all contingencies, actions and formations, creations,
and all multiplicities and compositions in the universe testify of a certainty
to a Necessarily-Existent One, One doing whatever He wills, the Creator of all
things, One and Single.
In short: Just as contingency shows necessity, and being or becoming evidently
points to an act of doing or making, and multiplicity to unity, so too, being
created and provided as observed in existence certainly point to the existence
of the acts of making, creating and providing. These of a necessity and evidently
point to the existence of a Compassionate Maker, Who is the Creator and Provider.
This means that through the tongues of the hundreds of attributes it has, each
creature bears witness to hundreds of Beautiful Names of the Necessarily-Existent
Being. If these testimonies are not admitted, then all such qualities must also
Beauties being refreshed and renewed after their disappearance show the
The beauties and comeliness observed on the faces of creatures for a fixed
period and then renewed and refreshed after their disappearance, show that they
are the reflections of some kind of the manifestations of an Eternal Beauty.
Just as the sparkling of the troops of bubbles on the surface of a river one
after the other under the sun shows that the bubbles are the mirrors of the
rays of a perpetual sun, so also the rays of beauty glittering on the creatures
travelling in the flowing river of time point to a Permanent Beauty. They are
the signs of some kind of that Beauty.
Also, the earnest love inherent in the heart of the universe shows a Never-Ending
Beloved One. As is pointed out by the fact that something that does not exist
in the nature of a tree has no place in its fruits, the solemn, transcendent
love existing in man who is the most sensitive and delicate fruit of the tree
of creation shows that in the whole of the universe there is true love, though
in different forms and of different kinds. So, that true love in the heart of
the universe shows an Eternal, Beloved One.
Also, the attractiveness and attractions and attachments manifesting themselves
in the bosom of the universe in many different forms show the hearts alerted
and aware that they all issue from the attractiveness of an attractive, eternal
Also, relying on their illuminations and visions, saintly people and those
capable of unveiling hidden truths in creation, who form the most sensitive
and enlightened group of beings, unanimously report that they receive the manifestations
of an All-Beautiful One of Majesty and are aware through their illuminations
and visions that that majestic, Beautiful One makes Himself known and loved.
This decisively testifies to the existence of a Necessarily-Existent One, Beautiful
One of Majesty, and to His making Himself known by human beings.
Also, the pen of beautification and decoration working on the face of the
universe and creatures, manifestly shows the beauty of the Names of that pen�s
Thus, with the beauty on its face, the love in its heart, the attraction
in its bosom, the illumination and vision in its eyes and the decoration and
loveliness in it as a whole, the universe opens up a pleasant, clear window
through which it shows intellects and hearts, alerted and awake, a Beautiful
One of Majesty, a Never-Ending Beloved One, an Eternal Object of Worship, all
of Whose Names are Beautiful.
Causality is only a veil.
God is the Creator of all things, and He is a Guardian, a Watcher
over all things. (39:62)
Looking at visible things, �causes and effects� in the universe, we see that
even the greatest cause by itself is not enough for the existence of even the
most insignificant thing. This means that causes are only a veil; there is one
who brings �effects��things�into existence. Out of innumerable creatures, we
consider as a simple example the faculty of memory situated in a place the size
of a grain of mustard seed in the head of man, and see that it is so comprehensive
a book or, rather, library, that the whole of his life-history is recorded in
What cause can you put forward as the origin of that miracle of Divine Power?
The entangled nerves of the brain? Or simple, unconscious parts of cells? Or
the winds of chance? Whereas, that miracle of art can be the work of such a
One, a Wise Maker, that in order to remind man in the Place of Gathering in
the Hereafter of all he did while in the world, He makes a copy of the register
of his deeds and gives it to the hand of his intellect.
Compare to man�s faculty of memory all eggs, seeds and fruit stones and also
compare to these tiny miracles of Power all other effects. Whatever effect or
thing you look at, you will see that it contains such a wonderful artistry that
if, let alone its ordinary, particular cause, all causes were gathered together,
they would display their impotence in front of it. For example, supposing the
sun, which is described by some as a huge cause or agent, to be conscious and
possessed of will-power. If you were to ask it whether it could make the body
of a fly, it would evidently answer: �Thanks to my Creator�s grace, there is
much light and heat and a lot of colors in my shop. But in the body of a fly
are things such as eyes and ears and life which do not exist in my shop, nor
are within my capacity.�
Also, just as the extraordinary art and decorations contained in a thing
refuse causes (as ac-counting for its creation) and point to the Necessarily-Existent
Being, Who is the Producer of All Causes�according to the meaning of Unto Him
is returned the whole of the affair (Hud,
11.123)�and acknowledge Him as the true originator of all things and events,
so too, the results, purposes and benefits connected to things evidently show
that they are the products (of the acts) of an All-Munificent Lord, a Compassionate
Wise One, Who is acting behind the veil of causes. For it is evident that unconscious
causes cannot work in pursuit of a purpose. Whereas we see that every creature
comes into existence not for a single purpose but for many definite purposes
and benefits and according to many instances of wisdom. This means that an All-Wise
and All-Munificent Lord brings them into existence. He makes those benefits
the reason for their existence.
For example, rain comes. Everybody knows that the apparent causes of rain
are infinitely for from having any consideration or concern for animals. Therefore,
rain is sent to the aid of animals through the Wisdom of a Compassionate Creator,
Who creates animals and undertakes their provision. Rain is called �mercy�.
Since it bears numerous results of mercy and brings many benefits, it is as
if mercy has been embodied in rain, in drops, and is falling in drops.
Also, the show and embellishment in all adorned plants and animals, which
smile at all creatures, evidently point to the necessary existence and Unity
of a Majestic Being, Who, behind the veil of the Unseen, wants to make Himself
known and loved through that art of adornment and embellishment. That is, the
adornment, show and beauty of things certainly point to the qualities of making
one-self known and loved, which, in turn, testify evidently to the necessary
existence and Unity of a Known, All-Loving and All-Powerful Maker.
In short: Since causes are infinitely ordinary and impotent when compared
to the effects�things�which are extremely full of art and valuable, they can
have no real part in creation. Also, the benefits of things and purposes pursued
through them and for them deny causes any real role in creation and attribute
their existence to an All-Wise Maker absolutely. Furthermore, the decorations
they have and the skills apparent in their coming into existence point to an
All-Wise Maker, Who wants to make known His Power to conscious beings and Who
desires to be loved.
O helpless one who �deifies� causes! With what can you explain these important
realities? How can you deceive yourself? If you are rational enough, rent the
veil of causes apart, and proclaiming, He is One, there is no partner with Him,
be saved from innumerable illusions.
We see an all-inclusive wisdom and ordering from the cells of the body to
the world as a whole.
Among His signs are His creation of the heavens and the earth
and the difference of your tongues and colors. Surely in this are signs for
those who know, for scientists. (30:22)
Looking at the universe, we see an all-inclusive wisdom and ordering from
the cells of the body to the world as a whole. On looking at the cells of the
body, we see a significant organization and arrangement in them by the command
and law of the One Who sees and governs all the functions and needs of the body.
Just as some nourishment is stored up in the body in the form of fat to use
in case of need, so too there is the same kind of storage facility in the cells.
When we look at plants, we see an extremely wise organization, cultivation
and nursery, and when looking at animals, we observe an extremely generous subsistence
and breeding. We look at the pillar-like parts of the universe and witness a
majestic management and illumination for important purposes. On looking at the
world in its entirety, we see it has been perfectly planned and ordered as a
country or a city or a palace for certain sublime instances of wisdom and exalted
purposes. As is explained and argued in the First Station of the Twenty-second
Word, this leaves no room for associating partners with God in any part of the
universe from the tiniest particles to the largest stars. They are intertwined
and interrelated with one another in such a way that the one who does not subjugate
and manage stars cannot dominate over even a single particle. In order to truly
be a lord over a particle, one has to own and control all of the stars. Also,
as is explained and argued in the Second Station of The Twenty-second Word,
the one who is not able to create the heavens and put them in an exact order,
cannot give anyone his individual, particular countenance. That is, the one
who is unable to be a lord over all the heavens, cannot inscribe the heavenly
mark on the face of an individual which forms his distinguishing feature.
All this forms a window as large as the universe so that, if we look through
it, we can see clearly and also with the eye of the mind that the verses, God
is the Creator of all things and He is a Guardian, a Watcher, over all things.
His are the keys of the heavens and the earth... (al-Zumar,
39. 62�3) are inscribed on the pages of the universe in capital letters.
Since this is so, the one who does not see them has neither eyes nor a heart,
or is human only in appearance.
One who is unable to make all things cannot create a single thing.
There is nothing that does not glorify Him with praise. (17:44)
Once in a springtime I was travelling amid thoughts and feelings of loneliness.
While walking along the foot of a hill, I caught sight of a wild, yellow flower.
It reminded me of the flowers of the same kind which I had seen in the past
in my home-town and other places. It then struck me Whose stamp that flower
bore, Whose seal and inscription it carried. All the flowers of the same sort
on the face of the earth are evidently His stamps and seals.
Thinking of that brought to my mind the notion that as the seal on a letter
tells of the one who wrote and sent the letter, so also that flower is a seal
of the All-Merciful One, and that hill too, which has been worked with such
sorts of inscriptions as those and the �lines� of meaningful plants, are a letter
of that flower�s Maker. Further, that hill is itself a seal with that plain
ahead of it being a letter of the All-Merciful One.
These thoughts caused the following truth to occur to me: being like a seal
of the Lord, each thing attributes all things to its Creator, and prove that
they are the letters of its Author. So, each thing forms such a window onto
the Divine Unity that it submits all things to the ownership of a Single One
of Unity. That is, each thing, each living thing especially, contains such a
wonderful design, such a miraculous art, that the One Who makes it so and designs
it so meaningfully, is also able to make all things and it will certainly be
He Who has made all things. The one who is unable to make all things cannot
create a single thing.
O you who are unaware of the reality of things! Look at the face of this
universe! Who can deny the testimony of the pages of creatures that are like
the innumerable letters of the Eternally-Besought-of-All, one within the other,
and these seals put on them are the seals of Divine Unity? What power can silence
them? If you listen to any of them with the ears of the heart, you will hear
it pronounce, I bear witness that there is no god but God.
Authority and sovereignty do not accept rivalry and reject partnership and
Had there been gods in them (the heavens and the earth) save
God, they would surely go into disorder. (21:22)
All things perish except His �Face.� His is the kingdom and unto Him you are
This window is the one pertaining to all the theologians who have based their
arguments on the facts that all things are contingent�that is, it is equally
possible for them to come into existence or not; their existence is not absolutely
necessary�and that they have come into existence in the course of time. It is
the highway they follow in proving the existence of the Necessarily Existent
One. Refer-ring their detailed explanation to voluminous books of exacting scholars
such as Sharh al-Mawaqif and Sharh al-Maqasid, we will only try
to reflect a few rays coming to the soul from the light of the Qur�an through
Authority and sovereignty do not accept rivalry and reject partnership and
interference. It is be-cause of this that, if there were two headmen in a small
village, they would destroy the order and peace in it. Likewise, were there
to be two governors in a district or town, they would cause great con-fusion
there. Two kings in a country would cause turmoil. Since a pale shadow and a
petty sample of the shadow of absolute authority and sovereignty enjoyed by
powerless men in need of assistance categorically rejects rivalry and the intervention
of its opposite, you may compare to what degree and how substantially sovereignty
in the form of supreme, absolute kingdom and authority at the degree of Divine
Lordship enjoyed by an Absolutely Powerful One rejects interference and partnership.
That is, the most indispensable and constant requirement of Divinity and Lordship
is Oneness and Singleness with no partners. The perfect order and most beautiful
harmony in the universe are a most clear proof and certain testimony of this.
From the wing of a fly to the lamps of the heavens, such an order prevails in
the universe that in the face of it the mind cannot help but exclaim in amazement
and admiration, Glory be to God! What wonders God has willed! God bless it!,
and fall prostrate. Had there been the slightest room for associating partners
with God to interfere with Him, according to the meaning of the verse, Had there
been gods in them save God, they would surely go into disorder, order would
be destroyed and the form and shape of the universe would change. Whereas, as
is stated in the verses, Turn your sight (to the
heavens) whether you can see any flaw and fissure. Turn again your sight a second
time so that your sight will return to you dimmed and dazzled, in a state worn
however hard man�s sight strives to see a flaw in creation, it will come back
to the eye in utter exhaustion and say to the fault-finding reason: �I have
been exhausted in vain, there is no flaw.� This shows that the order is most
perfect. This means that this perfect order is a decisive testimony to God�s
As for the fact that the universe came into existence in the course of time
and therefore it is not eternal, theologians argue:
The world is subject to change. Anything subject to change has a beginning,
it came into existence at a point in time. Anything which came into existence
at a point in time has someone who brought it into existence. That being the
reality, this universe has an Eternal Creator.
We say: The universe certainly has a beginning; it came into existence in
the course of time. It is because we see that in every century, rather, in every
year, in every season even, a world goes and a new one comes. This means that
there is an All-Powerful One of Majesty, Who invents, creates, a new world every
year, rather, in every season or every day even, and after showing it to conscious
beings, He replaces it with a newer one. He makes these� worlds� succeed one
another, attaching them to the string of time in a series. It is certainly the
Power of an All-Powerful One that creates the worlds in this way one after the
other in succeeding seasons of spring, each of which is itself a renewed world.
Most evidently, the One Who creates continuously worlds within the world and
exchanges them with new ones, has created this universe, too. He has made this
universe and the face of the earth a �guest-house� for those mighty guests.
As for the issue of contingency, theologians argue:
Contingency means equality between two possibilities. That is, if it is equally
possible for something to come into existence or not, there must be one who
will prefer either possibility, one who will create in case of his preference
of existence. For contingent beings cannot create each other to continue in
succession. Nor can they go back to eternity in cycles with the former having
created the latter. Since this is so, there is a Necessarily Existent Being
Who creates all. Theologians have rendered null and void the chain of creative
cause and effect or the notion of successive creators with twelve decisive arguments,
some of which they call �argument in ascension� and �argument is steps�, and
breaking the chain of cause and effect, proved the existence of the Necessarily
We say: Rather than demonstrating the impossibility of the chain of cause and
effect in creation or the cycle of successive creators to prove the necessary
existence of a Creator Who has no beginning and has created all things, it is
better and easier to show the stamp on everything belonging to the Creator of
All Things. Through the enlightenment of the Qur�an, all the Windows and all
the other Words follow this principle. The subject of contingency embraces a
very broad range of arguments to demonstrate the existence of the Necessarily
Existent Being in innumerable ways. However, the subject need not be restricted
to the way theologians treat it�however broad that way is�namely, that the cycle
or the chain of cause and effect must stop at one point, where the realm of
Divine Creativity must begin. Rather, it opens up innumerable ways to knowledge
of the Necessarily Existent Being. For example:
While with respect to its being, features, qualities and life-span, each
thing hesitates over which of numerous possible ways it could follow, we see
that it chooses a well-ordered, well-established way to have a definite, most
appropriate body. It is equipped with qualities exactly suitable to its existence
and all the states and conditions it undergoes and the features it adopts during
its life-span are cut out specially for itself. This is obviously through the
will of One Who assigns to everything its specialties, through the choice of
One Who chooses, through the creation of a wise Creator Who directs it for wise
purposes along a particular way among countless others. He clothes it in features
and qualities befitting it and makes it a part of a composite entity. This causes
the possibilities before it to increase, for it is equally possible for it to
have a place in that entity in any of thousands of ways. However, it is positioned
in a way just appropriate for it so that it should perform the fruitful and
purposeful duties expected of it in that entity. Subsequently, that entity is
made a part of another larger entity. This multiplies possibilities still further
for it may have a place in it in any of even more thou-sands of ways. It is
positioned in any of those ways and made to carry out important duties. And
so on. All this demonstrates the necessary existence of an All-Wise Director
more and more accurately and decisively and explains that things are directed
through the command of an All-Knowing Authority.
A private has certain duties and specially determined services to perform
in relation to his squad, company, battalion, regiment, army-corps and army,
and wisely arranged relations particular to each. Likewise, a cell in the pupil
of your eye has a certain relation to your eye, then to your head, and then
to your veins and nervous system and finally to your body as a whole, and it
also has duties apportioned to it wisely in relation to each. Were it to fail
the least in doing its duties, you would become ill, the body would suffer.
So, just as through its being and features, and through the body it is clothed
in, and the form and attributes it is given out of numerous possible ones, each
creature in the universe testifies to a Necessarily Existent One, so also it
proclaims its Maker in other tongues when it is positioned in different composite
entities. With respect to its services and duties in each of those entities
up to the largest one, it bears witness to the necessary existence, Will and
Choice of the All-Wise Maker. For it can only be the Creator of all those composite
entities, Who positions a thing in them in a way to maintain all the wise relations
between them. This means that a single thing has a position where it will testify
to Him in thousands of tongues. Thus, testimonies to the existence of the Necessarily
Existent Being accumulate not to the number of the creatures of the universe
themselves, but to the number of the possibilities for them to have each of
their qualities, features, forms and positions, and the duties assigned to each,
and the relations they maintain in the composite entities in which they are.
Humanity and its inner world
Surely, We have created man in the fairest creation and in
the best pattern.(95:4)
In the earth are signs for the people of certainty, and in your selves; will
you still not have in-sight? (51:20-21)
This window is that of man and concerns his inner world. Referring its detailed
explanation to thousands of voluminous books of truth-seeking saintly scholars,
we will only mention a few fundamentals we have obtained from the enlightenment
of the Qur�an.
Man is such a comprehensive copy (of existence) that Almighty God makes all
His Names perceived by him through his self. We will discuss the following points:
● Man is a mirror to the Divine Names with regard to three aspects:
- In the same way as darkness at night suggests light, man points, through
his weakness and impotence, destitution and neediness, and imperfection and
defects, to the Power, Force, Wealth and Mercy, etc of an All-Powerful One
of Majesty, thus becoming a mirror to many Attributes of God. In search of
a point of support against innumerable obstacles and enemies in his infinite
weakness and impotence, his conscience is al-ways turned toward the Necessarily
Existent Being. Also, since in infinite destitution and neediness, he feels
constrained to look for a point of assistance to realize his in-numerable
aims, his conscience always tends to receive support from the Court of a Compassionate,
Wealthy One and man petitions Him for his needs. This means that with respect
to his need for a point of support and a point of assistance, two small windows
are opened up from the conscience of everyone onto the Court of Mercy of a
Compassionate All-Powerful One, through which everyone can look to Him.
- Through the particular knowledge, power, sight, hearing, ownership and
sovereignty accorded to him, man functions as a mirror to the Absolute Knowledge,
Power, Sight, Hearing and Ownership of the Owner of the universe and the Sovereignty
of His Lordship. He understands them and makes them known. For example, he
says: �Just as I have built this house and know how to build it and I am its
owner and I see and administer it, so too this huge palace of the universe
must have a builder who knows and sees it and administers it.
- Man functions as a mirror to the Divine Names Whose inscription are seen
on him. As is briefly explained at the beginning of the Third Station of the
Thirty-second Word, there are more than seventy Divine Names Whose inscriptions
are apparent in the comprehensive nature of man. For example, through his
constructions he manifests the Names the Maker, the Creator and the Giver
of Form, etc, through his being the best pattern and of the fairest of creation,
he demonstrates the Names the Most Merciful and the Most Compassionate, and
through his good sustenance and upbringing, he shows the Names the All-Munificent
and the All-Gracious, etc. And so on. Through all his systems and parts, all
his members and organs, all his faculties and features, and all his senses
and feelings, he displays different inscriptions of different Divine Names.
In the same way as there is the Greatest One among the Names, so too among
the inscriptions of the Names the greatest one is man.
● This relates to a significant mystery of God�s Oneness, which is as
Man�s spirit has a unifying function in regard to his body, namely, it
causes all the body�s members and parts to help one another. That is, man�s
spirit, which is a conscious law of Divine Command issuing from Divine Will
and a faculty breathed into him by God and clothed in a perceptible existence,
is not confused by receiving the signals of all the different bodily elements;
rather, it meets their needs all at the same instant. In relation to the spirit,
the distant is the same as the near, and the organs do not prevent one another
from communicating with it. In case of need, the spirit can send most of the
bodily elements to the assistance of a single one, and it can move all the
parts of the body at the same moment. It can know, perceive and govern through
any of them. If it has been able to refine, to purify, itself and acquire
enough luminosity, it can see and hear through any part of the body, no matter
how small it is.
Similarly�and God�s is the highest comparison�seeing that the spirit, which
is a law of Divine Command [that is, which has the same meaning for the body
as, for example, the law of growth for a tree, except that the spirit, by
contrast to any of the Divine laws related to the creation and operation of
the universe, is alive and conscious and has a perceptible existence], displays
such abilities in man�s body, most certainly, countless actions, innumerable
sounds and voices, boundless invocations and endless deeds can in no way confuse
the Necessarily Existent Being; His universal Will and absolute Power can
deal with all of them at the same time, without any confusion. The Majestic
Creator is never confused by them; He sees all things, hears all sounds and
voices. Distances have nothing to do with Him. If He wills, He can send all
other things to the help of a single thing.
● Life has a very significant nature and an important duty. Since this
has been explained in detail in the Window concerning life, we will recall here
only the following point:
The complex and complicated feelings boiling in life point to many Names
and Attributes of God. They function as clear mirrors to the essential qualities
and acts of the Ever-Living, Self-Subsistent One. Since it is not yet the
time to discuss this matter before those who do not recognize God and affirm
Him with due conviction, we will not go further.
Prophet Muhammad as one of the two greatest evidences of God
He it is Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the true
religion in order to make it triumphant over all other religions. God is sufficient
as a witness. (48:28)
Say: �O man-kind! I am the Messenger of God to you all, for Whom is the kingdom
of the heavens and the earth; there is no god but He. He gives life and causes
to die�. (7:158)
This Window is the one formed of the Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace
and blessings, who is the sun of the heaven of Messengership. Referring the
detailed explanation of this most broad and brilliant and resplendent Window
to the Thirty-first Word, which is the Treatise of Ascension, and the Nineteenth
Word�the Treatise of the Prophethood of Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings,
and the Nineteenth Letter with nineteen Signs, we will be content with the following
On the wings of Messengership and sainthood, that is, equipped with a power
formed of the absolute consensus of all the Prophets preceding him and the unanimous
agreement of all the saints and pure scholars to come after him, the Prophet
Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, who is himself an articulate proof
of Divine Unity, proclaimed and demonstrated Divine Unity throughout his life
with all his strength. He opened up onto knowledge of God a broad and radiant
window, namely the Muslim world. Thousands of pure, truth-seeking and truthful
scholars like Imam Ghazali, Imam Rabbani, Muhy al-Din al-�Arabi, and �Abd al-Qadir
al-Jilani look through this window and point others to knowledge of God. Is
there a veil to draw across such a window? Can he be a sensible one who criticizes
this window and does not look through it? You give the answer.
The Qur�an as another of the two greatest evidences of God
All praise be to God, Who has sent down to his servant the
Book and has allowed therein no crookedness. (18:1)
Alif Lam Mim Ra. A Book which We have sent to you so that you may bring men
forth from darkness to light. (14:1)
Consider that all the previous Windows are a few drops from the ocean of
the Qur�an and try to understand how many lights of Divine Unity, like water
of life, there are in the Qur�an. Even if you have a simple, superficial look
at the Qur�an, which is the source and mine of all those previous Windows, still
it is a most shining, luminous, comprehensive Window. To understand how brilliant
and luminous that Window is, you may refer to the Treatise of the Qur�an�s Miraculousness,
which is the Twenty-fifth Word and the Eighteenth Sign of the Nineteenth Letter.
Supplicating the Throne of Mercy of the Majestic Being, Who sent us the Qur�an,
Our Lord! Do not call us to account if we have forgotten or made errors!
Our Lord! Do not cause our hearts to swerve after You have guided us! Our
Lord! Accept from us, surely You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. Accept
our penitence, surely You are the Oft-Relenting, the All-Merciful.