Seeing that everything depends on a cause in the universe and takes place
according to the cycle of cause and effect, how can you deny that causes have
an actual part in the creation and operation of things?
Everything depends on a cause in the universe and takes place according to
the cycle of cause and effect. since causality is apparent through the universe,
it means that causes have an actual part in the creation and operation of things.
if they have a part, they may be partners.
As is required by the Divine Will and Wisdom and as the Divine Names tend
to manifest themselves, the results have been made dependent on causes. However,
as is convincingly argued in many places, causes have no creative effect in
the universe. In addition to what we have already said in other places concerning
the subject, we say here only this:
Among conscious beings who may be regarded as most effective causes in bringing
about effects, man is evidently the most elevated among them with a free, most
comprehensive will-power which has a vast field of operation. Speaking, thinking
and eating are the most apparent among the acts arising from his free will.
All these three acts include well-ordered chains of events, but only one is
directly connected to man�s free will. For example, among the series of events
related to eating, from the formation of fruits and growth and ripening of grains
to their becoming sustenance for the cells of the human body, only chewing them
depends on man�s free will. As hunger, thirst and appetite are outside the field
of man�s will, so also does his body work independently of him. What he does
from among the actions related to speaking is only to take the air in and out
of the vocal organs where sounds are produced. Whereas, while being like a seed
in the mouth, a word becomes like a tree in the air when uttered. That tree
produces millions of fruits of the kind of that single word. It goes into the
ears of millions of listeners. A man can only imagine this multiplication. After
uttering the word, he has nothing more to do with it of his free will.
If man, the most honored among causes, even agents, and the most free in
using will, has nothing to do with creation to that degree, how can inanimate
objects, elements, plants and animals, which constitute nature, have any real
effect or part in creation? How can things, called �natural laws�, which have
no consciousness, will and knowledge, and which have only nominal existence,
be the originators of a miraculous system�the universe�the creation and operation
of which require infinite knowledge, will and power, and of a miraculous living,
conscious, speaking, reasoning, thinking, and learning organism like man? Nature
is only an envelope for the Lord�s creatures and a tray or a cauldron for the
gifts of the All-Merciful One. Certainly, neither the tray on which they offer
you a gift of the king, nor the piece of cloth in which the gift is wrapped,
nor even the private who brings it to you, can be a partner of the king in his
sovereignty. The one who imagines him to be a partner, is suffering delirium.
In the same way, neither the apparent causes nor means can have any part in
the Divine Lordship in any way. What falls to their lot is only the duty of