How does air demonstrate God�s Existence and Unity?
He: a point of Divine Unity demonstrated by a molecule of air
It is a fact that a handful of soil serves as a flower-bed for hundreds of
flowers one after another. If this process is attributed to �nature� or �causality�,
then it is necessary either for there to exist in such a handful of soil hundreds
of the tiniest machines or factories [to produce the flowers] and also an immaterial
�factory� [to determine and govern their whole lives in place of the Divine
Knowledge and Destiny], or for each particle of that small amount of soil to
know how to make all those different flowers in their different characteristics
and with their living elements. To put it simply: each particle would have to
possess infinite knowledge and limitless power such as only God truly owns.
In just the same way, in each molecule of air (which is a conductor of Divine
Will and Command) in each gust, each shift of air such as can be identified
making the sound He, there must either be present, on the minutest scale,
the centers, exchanges, receivers, and transmitters of all the telephones, telegraphs
and radios in the world, so that each molecule of air could perform those countless
acts at the same time; or each particle or molecule must dispose all the relevant
faculties (of mind, spirit, personality, etc.) of all the different users of
the telephones, telegraphs, radios, and must know all their different languages,
and transmit them to the other particles at the same time. Just such an impossibility
is required by the ways of the unbelievers, naturalists and materialists, in
which not one impossibility, but impossibilities and difficulties to the number
of particles of air are apparent.
If attributed to the Majestic Maker, however the air together with all its
particles becomes a �soldier� under His Command. Through the leave and Power
of its Creator, and through connection to and reliance on Him, and through the
manifestation of its Maker�s Power, in an instant with the speed of lightning,
and with the ease of uttering the word He and the movement of air, its
innumerable universal duties are performed as easily as the single duty of one
individual particle. That is, the air becomes a �page� for the endless, wonderful,
orderly inscriptions of the Pen of Power; its particles become the ribs of the
Pen, and the duties of those particles, the points inscribed by the Pen. It
works as easily as the movement of a single particle.
If a few other points are jumbled around one point on a piece of white paper,
it will be almost impossible to distinguish that point; and if a man does several
different jobs at the same time he will be confused: and if a living creature
is loaded with many burdens at the same time, it will be crushed; and if a man
were to give ear to or utter numerous different words all at the same time,
those words would be confused and muddled.
Despite this being the case, although thousands of different points, letters
and words are deposited in each molecule, even in each particle, of the air,
they are conveyed without any confusion and irregularity. Also, although the
air performs a great many different duties at the same time, it carries them
out without any confusion; each molecule or particle of the air is loaded with
very heavy burdens, yet bears them without lagging or displaying any weakness
at all. Again, thousands of different words of all different sorts and meanings
enter into ears and issue out of mouths with perfect order and without being
muddled. By carrying out all of its extraordinary duties, each particle and
molecule of air proclaims in the tongue of its being and functioning and in
ecstasy and perfect freedom, and through the testimony of the above truth:
there is no deity but He, and, Say: He is God, the One. It travels among
air-clashing waves like storms of lightning and thunder in perfect order without
confusing its duties, not one of which prevents any other.
The deduction must be: either each particle or molecule of air necessarily
has infinite wisdom, knowledge, will, and power, and other qualities through
which to be absolutely dominant over all the other particles so that it can
perform all those functions�a notion that is absurd and inconceivable to the
number of particles, and no devil can ever conceive it�or else (and this is
evident to the degree of certainty based on knowledge, certainty based on eye-witnessing
or clear observation, and certainty based on personal experience) that the element
of air functions in the world of transformations and changes as a changing �page�
for the Pen of Power and Destiny used by the All-Majestic One with infinite
knowledge and wisdom, and as a signboard, known as the Tablet of Abrogation
and Confirmation, on which a changeable copy of the Divine decrees on the Supreme
Preserved Tablet are reflected.
Thus, just as air demonstrates the above-mentioned wonders and manifestation
of Divine Oneness in only the duty of transmitting sound and images and shows
the infinite impossibility of the way of misguidance, so also does it perform
such other important duties as transmitting subtle forces like electricity,
light, and the forces of attraction and repulsion all at the same time as it
performs the duty of transmitting sound. Also, with perfect order and without
any confusion it carries out duties essential for the lives of all plants and
animals, such as respiration and pollination. Air decisively proves that it
is a very important means of conveying the Divine Will and Command, and that
there is no way or possibility of random chance, blind force, deaf nature, confused,
aimless causality, and powerless, lifeless, unknowing matter, taking part in
or having any influence on the performance of the air�s duties. Also, each particle,
each molecule proclaims in the tongue of its being and functioning: There
is no deity but God, and, Say: He is God, the One.
Beings coming to life and being revived demonstrates God�s Unity
Look at the signature put on the acts of bringing to life and reviving. Out
of innumerable possible examples, we mention only one: In each transparent or
apparently transparent thing, from planets to drops and glass, there is a stamp�an
image or reflection�specific to the Sun.
The Unique, Eternal Sun (1) also sets on each living
thing a seal, a stamp, of reviving and bringing to life, which reveals itself
by manifesting all of His Names on that thing. If all material causes�supposing
they had power and will�came together to produce the like of that stamp,
they could not do so, even if they helped each other (The
Assume that the images of the Sun reflected in drops, glass, or any transparent
thing are not attributed to the Sun. If this were the case, one would have to
accept that there is a real, tiny Sun in each drop facing the Sun, in each piece
of glass reflecting the Sun�s light, and that every transparent thing has become
Assume that every living thing and life, and every act of bringing to life,
is not attributed to the manifestation of the Divine Names. Assume that the
belief that life is the focus of the Divine Names� manifestations, which could
be regarded as the rays of the Eternal Sun, is not acceptable. If this were
so, each living thing would have to have an infinite power of creation, all-encompassing
knowledge, and absolute will, and attributes that it is impossible to be found
in anything other than the Necessarily Existent Being (2)
Also, each atom would have to have divinity, for the existence of everything
would have to be ascribed to itself. Likewise, if the existence of everything
is ascribed to causes, absolute divinity would have to be attributed to each
cause. Thus there would be countless partners in Divinity, which necessarily
requires absolute independence and rejection of any partnership.
Consider an atom or a seed. See how astonishing its well-arranged composition
and relationships are. It has relationships with all parts of the living thing
of which it is a part, as well as relationships with all members of its species
and all other creatures. Its relationships and duties resemble those of a private
with respect to military officers. If the atom�s or seed�s connection to the
Absolute Power were severed, it would have to be admitted that it has eyes to
see all things and an all-comprehensive consciousness.
In summary: If the Sun�s reflection in a drop is attributed to the actual
Sun, many Suns would have to exist in the smallest things. It is the same with
the Absolutely Powerful One, in relation to Whose Power all things that exist,
without exception, are the same. Accepting the above assertion requires accepting
All things in the universe are interrelated with one another
The universe resembles a tree, which has grown from a seed containing the
program of the future full form of the tree. So, all things in the universe
are closely interrelated with one another. Each particle in the body, for example,
a particle in the pupil of the eye, has relations with the eye itself, as well
as with the head, and the powers of reproduction, attraction and repulsion,
with the veins and arteries, and with other veins, and motor and sensory nerves,
which serve the circulation of blood and the working of the body, and with the
rest of the body, and it has also duties in relation to each. This evidently
shows one who is not blind that the whole of the body, including every particle,
is a work of an Eternal, All-Powerful One and operates under His command.
Everything is in its exact place in creation and in close co-operation with
The seeds of all flowering and fruit-bearing plants are the same in composition:
they are all composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen. They only differ
on account of and in respect of the program of their progenitor deposited in
them by Divine Destiny. If we put the seeds of various flowering and fruit-bearing
plants one after another in a flower-pot filled with earth, which is composed
of particular or certain elements, each plant will appear in the wonderful form
and shape, the amazing members, peculiar to it. If those particles were not
subjugated to, and under the command of, One Who knows each thing with all its
features, structures, and life-cycles, and the conditions of its life, and is
capable of endowing everything with a being suitable to it and everything necessary
for it, and to Whose Power everything is subjected without the least resistance,
then either there would have to be in each particle of the earth �immaterial
factories� determining all the future lives of the plants, and workshops to
the number of all the flowering and fruit-bearing plants, so that each could
be the origin for all those various beings, differing in form, taste, color,
and members, or each of those plants should have an all-encompassing knowledge
and a power capable of forming themselves. That means, if the connection of
beings with Almighty God is severed, then it becomes necessary to accept gods
to the number of the particles of earth. This is the most inconceivable of superstitions.
Every particle testifies to God in two ways
Also, in each particle are two further true witnesses to the necessary existence
and Unity of the Maker: despite its absolute powerlessness, each particle is
able to do a great variety of significant duties, and despite its lifelessness,
by acting in conformity with the universal order, each particle displays a universal
consciousness. That means, each particle testifies, through its impotence, to
the necessary existence of the Absolutely All-Powerful One, and through acting
in conformity with the order of the universe, to His Unity.
Attributing existence to One God is the easiest way to explain it
Writing a book requires only a writer and a pen. However, if it is printed
on a printing press, there would have to be as many iron letters as actual letters
in the book. Also, many people would be needed to make those letters and arrange
them for printing the book. Sura Ya Sin is written in very small letters inside
the two Arabic letters �Ya� and �Sin.� If a book is written in small, fine letters
within a single word, then one would need as many iron letters as actual letters
in the book to print that single word.
If you say that the universe is a book written with the pen of a Single One,
then you are following the easiest and most reasonable path. If, by contrast,
you attribute the universe�s existence to nature or material causes, you are
following the most unreasonable and difficult way. In such a case, �printing�
a single living thing would require as many instruments as printing most of
the universe would demand. This seems to be an impossible supposition.
Suppose different kinds of seeds have been buried in a soil-filled pot. Empty
the pot and fill it with soil taken from the Earth�s surface. In both cases,
the result will be almost the same. The same result can be observed all over
the Earth. Despite the variety in shape, color, taste, and appearance, any soil
can be used to produce all flowers and fruit-bearing trees. Thus each seed,
despite their physical simplicity and similarity to each other, would have to
have special machines or workshops to form the entire plant or tree.
Every created letter of the Book of the Universe points to God in many ways
Any letter in a book points to itself as a letter and in one respect only.
However, it points to its writer in many respects. Similarly, every �created�
letter of the Book of the Universe points to itself only as a letter. However,
it points to its Maker in many respects, both individually and in the words
and sentences in which it is included, and manifests its Maker�s titles, describing
them as if it were a long, fine poem.
Absolute balance, orderliness and distinguishing despite things being almost
The Glorious Maker puts His special stamp on each particular or individual
thing, and His specific seal on each part of a whole. Likewise, He puts His
special stamp on each species and each whole. He puts the stamp of His Unity
on the whole of the universe, as well as on any part of it, thus demonstrating
His Unity. By concentrating the manifestations of all or some of His Names on
a single entity, He displays His Oneness (3).
Look at the stamp pointed out in: Look at the
prints of God�s Mercy, how He revives the Earth after its death. He verily is
the Reviver of the dead in the same way, and He is powerful over all things
The revival of the Earth is an astonishing �resurrection� or coming to life
again. Hundreds of thousands of animal and vegetable species are raised to life.
There are far more members of many non-human species than there are human beings.
Nevertheless, to fulfil certain subtle purposes, most plants are not raised
in their exact former identities, but in forms bearing a substantial and close
resemblance to their previous ones. However they are revived, their revival
indicates the ease of Resurrection [that will occur at the end of time after
the universe�s destruction].
Despite their being infinitely mixed with each other, reviving those innumerable
species without any confusion and with exact differentiation is a special stamp
of the One of infinite Power and all-encompassing Knowledge.
Species are infinitely mixed and intermingled, and there is great similarity
among them. On the �page� of the Earth, hundreds of thousands of �books� are
written without confusion or mistake, with infinite order, and with absolute
accuracy in distinguishing among them. This is also a special seal of the One
in Whose hand are the kingdom and keys of all things. He is not prevented from
doing one thing while simultaneously doing something else.
During spring, there is an exalted, subtly embroidered seal belonging to
the Lord, one showing itself in absolute accuracy and orderliness, abundance
and extensiveness, and with absolute speed and ease. You see that completely
mixed things are perfectly distinguished and separated. This seal is particular
to the One Who can do many things at once, from Whom nothing is hidden, and
for Whom nothing is difficult.
In this same season, we see extraordinary art and activity on the Earth based
on purposefulness, insight, wisdom, and munificence. This occurs everywhere,
in exactly the same way, orderliness, and abundance. This art and activity are
seals of the One Who, despite being nowhere, is present everywhere through His
Power and Knowledge, Whom nothing wearies, and Who never needs help.
Mutual helping and cooperation in the universe
As the stamp of the Oneness of Him Who is Eternally Besought-of-All, is observed
on the �page� of the Earth and throughout the heavens and the Earth, so also
is the stamp of His Unity observed on the universe as a whole. The universe
is like a magnificent palace, a well-ordered factory, a well-planned city, all
of whose elements or parts work together for great purposes. Even over long
distances, elements hasten to help each other when needed and do not get lost.
Those who discern this truth see how some parts help other parts to meet their
needs. It is as if they respond to each other�s requests for help and, in close
cooperation and obedience to a single manager, work in orderliness and serve
living beings for specific purposes.
Look at this principle of mutual helping and cooperation. The Sun and the
moon, day and night, and summer and winter work with plants to help animals
and to convey their food to them, which they take from the treasury of Mercy.
Animals hasten to help human beings. For example, honeybees and silkworms take
honey and silk from the treasury of the All-Merciful and carry them to humanity.
Particles of soil, air, and water help fruits and vegetation, each of which
have a different taste and quality of nourishment. In turn, they help the body�s
cells in perfect orderliness and for great purposes.
This perfect, purposeful, and well-arranged mutual helping is manifested
by all of those things, especially inanimate objects. It is also an evident
proof and clear argument that they are servants of an All-Wise Sustainer, workers
of a Munificent Manager who work by His command and leave, and by His Power
Providing each being just on time and according to its need
The food needed by living things is distributed among them on time and according
to their need. This well-arranged universal providence, contained in an all-encompassing
mercy, implies love for and knowledge of those being supplied. Such all-encompassing
mercy combined with perfect graciousness implies favoring and gratifying. Such
graciousness combined with universal wisdom implies a certain purpose and consciousness.
Such universal wisdom combined with a perfect arrangement makes all things dependent
on each other. Such dependence requires mutual helping and solidarity among
all parts of existence. All of this is a special stamp of the One Who is the
Lord, Sustainer, Provider, and Director of all things. It is also a seal particular
to the One to Whose Command the sun, the moon, and the stars are subjugated.
He is the One Who has made all things good which
He has created (32:7).
When He wills a thing, He only says: �Be,� and it
One who cannot create, own and administer the universe cannot create, own
and administer an atom
The stamp of Oneness is seen on all individual things and species, on the
earth and the universe, and is distributed throughout the world on such universal
elements as air, water, and soil.
Planting seeds in an arable land indicates that the land is controlled by
the owner of the seeds, and that the seeds belong to the one who controls the
land. All those universal elements [like water, air and soil implying an all-encompassing
knowledge and wisdom] through their simplicity, uniformity, and comprehensiveness,
and all the things �planted� in them�these fruits of Mercy, miracles of Power,
and words of Wisdom�through their world-wide distribution for certain purposes,
are evidence that the comprehensive and comprehended, as well as the �land�
and the �seeds� planted in it, are at the disposal of a single Maker. Each species
and element testifies that it belongs to the One Who owns everything. Each flower
or fruit, each animal or micro-organism, is a seal proclaiming, a stamp pronouncing,
a signature declaring in the tongue of perfect harmony, orderliness, and purpose:
�The One Who owns me owns this space. Whoever created me created it. Whoever
uses me as a letter �wrote� it. Whoever made me a stitch wove it.�
The One Who disposes of the smallest creatures and manages the life of the
weakest beings has the supreme disposition of all elements. The One Who employs
all elements manages the lives of all animals and plants, and holds them in
His hand of Lordship. This is a stamp of Unity that is seen by anyone whose
eyes are not blind and whose heart is not sealed.
Can you claim absolute ownership and disposal of anything in the universe?
Ask an individual being, and it will reply: �Whoever is the absolute owner of
my species can claim to own me; otherwise he or she cannot.� Ask the species,
and they will reply: �Whoever has the absolute ownership of the Earth, both
its exterior and interior, can claim to own me; otherwise he or she cannot.�
Ask the Earth, and it will reply: �Whoever has the absolute ownership of the
whole universe can claim to own me; otherwise he or she cannot.�
The extraordinary ease of creating so many species distributed world-wide
comes from the Oneness of their Creator
We have pointed out some stamps of Unity put on parts, individual beings,
and wholes; on the universe; and on life, living beings, and bringing to life.
Among these innumerable seals of Oneness on species and wholes, let us look
at another one.
The difficulty or ease of creating a tree and a fruit is the same, as both
depend on the same law of growth and issue from the same center. Depending on
the same law of raising and upkeep diminishes difficulty and expenditure, so
much so that there is no difference between one person growing a tree with abundant
fruit and many people raising a single fruit tree. A single fruit grown by many
people requires as many tools as does growing a tree with abundant fruit. Similarly,
the instruments, machines, and factories needed to equip an army would be the
same if only a single soldier were to be equipped. The difference is only qualitative.
Also, printing thousands of copies of a book is not much more expensive than
printing a single copy. If each copy were printed on a different printing press,
the amount paid would be thousands of times greater than that paid for thousands
of copies from the same press.
In sum: If innumerably multiple things are not attributed to a single source,
then�besides having to attribute a single thing to innumerably multiple things�the
number of difficulties would equal the number of those things. So, the extraordinary
ease of creating so many species distributed world-wide comes from the Oneness
of their Creator.
The essential similarities among members of a species and species of a class
The essential similarities among members of a species and species of a class
show the oneness of the stamp and the singleness of the �pen,� and testify that
such similarities are the work of a Single One. Also, the absolute ease [of
their creation in such abundance] and the small expenditure spent on them demonstrate
that they are the work of a Single Being. If this were not so, their creation
would be impossibly difficult. This observed ease and economy of means also
shows that God has no partners in His Essence and acts, for such a condition
would destroy the order, which, in turn, would ruin the universe.
Just as life proves Divine Oneness and the necessity of His Existence, death
proves His Permanence and Eternity.
The images of the sun reflected in bubbles floating on a river and the sea,
as well as in transparent things on the earth, bear witness to the sun. These
images disappear when the sun sets or the river enters a tunnel, and new ones
appear when the sun rises again or the river comes out of the tunnel. This testifies
to the permanence of the sun�s light and demonstrates that these images are
the work of a single sun. Their existence shows the sun�s existence; their disappearance
shows that there is only one �eternal� sun.
Similarly, the existence of creatures shows the necessary existence of the
Necessarily Existent Being. Their disappearance, together with the causes of
their existence and their replacement with new creatures, bear witness to His
Permanence, Eternity, and Oneness. For along with the alternation of day and
night, seasons and years, beautiful beings are renewed, and fine creatures are
replaced as they �set� while their likes �rise.� All of this testifies to the
existence of an Eternally Beautiful One Who continuously manifests Himself,
and to His Permanence and Oneness. The disappearance of causes and their effects,
along with the succession of years and centuries and their being followed by
their likes, bear witness that causes and their effects are created for subtle
purposes. All of those fine beings coming in successively are creatures of the
All-Majestic, All-Gracious, and Beautiful One, all of Whose Names are beautiful
and holy. All of this activity testifies that they are His changing works, moving
mirrors, and successive stamps and seals.
Just as creatures testify to the All-Glorious One�s necessary existence
and Oneness, they also testify to His Attributes of Majesty, Beauty, and Perfection
Just as creatures testify to the All-Glorious One�s necessary existence and
Oneness, they also testify to His Attributes of Majesty, Beauty, and Perfection;
the perfection of His Essence; and the fact that His Being, essential �Qualities,�
Attributes, Names, and acts have no defect or deficiency.
A work�s perfection points to the act�s perfection. The act�s perfection
points to the title�s perfection. The title�s perfection points to the attribute�s
perfection. The attribute�s perfection points to the being�s essential capacity
or indispensable quality. The being�s perfection of the essential or indispensable
quality points to the being�s perfection.
A palace�s perfect structure and decoration manifests the perfection of the
engineer�s work. The work�s perfection shows the title�s perfection, meaning
that the engineer is skilful, expert, and capable. The title�s perfection displays
the perfection of the engineer�s qualities, meaning that the engineer is knowledgeable,
intelligent, capable, and efficient. The perfection of the qualities displays
these essential capacities, meaning that the engineer has fully realized his
or her superior capacities and distinguished potential. The perfection of the
capacities reveals one�s perfection as an engineer.
Similarly, the perfection of the works we observe in the universe bears witness
to the perfection of the activity behind them, which, in turn, bears witness
to the perfection of the titles of the one doing the work. The perfection of
the titles testifies to the perfection of the qualities or attributes, for names
or titles issue from attributes. The perfection of attributes reveals the perfection
of the essential capacities that are the attributes� sources. The perfection
of the essential capacities testifies to the perfection of the All-Glorious
Actually, compared to His glorious Perfection and majestic Beauty, all perfection
or beauty in the universe is only a dim or vague shadow.
P.S: 1 & 2. God Almighty
should be �considered from five perspectives. One is His Essence as Divine Being�―Zāt,
in Islamic terminology. His Essence cannot be known by anyone except God Himself.
A Prophetic Tradition says: Do not reflect on God�s Essence, instead, reflect
on His works and acts. For God has no partners, likes and resemblance, which
is pointed to by the verse: There is nothing like or compared unto Him. The
second perspective is God�s Essential, �Innate� Qualities as being God. These
are the source of the Attributes. The third perspective is His Attributes. The
Attributes have three kinds: one is His Essential Attributes, which are: Existence,
Having No Beginning, Eternal Permanence, Being Unlike the Created, Self-Subsistence.
The second is the Positive Attributes, which are: Life, Knowledge, Power, Speech,
Will, Hearing, Seeing, Creating. The third is the �Negative� Attributes. The
Negative Attributes are innumerable but can be summed up in a definition: God
is absolutely free from any defective and shortcoming. The Attributes are the
sources of Names. Life gives rise to the All-Living, Knowledge to All-Knowing,
Power to All-Powerful, etc. God has many Names, about one thousand of which
are known by human beings. The Names are the sources of the Acts. For example,
giving life has its source in the All-Living; knowing everything down to the
smallest originates in the All-Knowing, etc. God is �known� by His acts, Names
and Attributes. Whatever exists in the universe, in the worlds, material and
immaterial, is the result of the manifestation of God�s Names and Attributes.
For example, the universal and individual provision points to His Name, the
All-Providing; the All-Healing is the source of remedies and patients� recovering
from illnesses. Philosophy has its source in Wisdom, etc. The acts, Names and
Attributes are the �links� between God and the created, or the �reflectors�
with which to have knowledge of God.
Although we try to know or recognize God by His acts,
Names and Attributes, since there is nothing resembling Him, we must refrain
to think about Him in the terms associating likeness or comparison unto Him.
First of all, He is absolutely One, Single, that is, He is God without any resemblance
what or howsoever. In this sense, His Oneness is not in terms of number. However,
He has also Unity. He has relations with the created. In order to have some
knowledge of Him through His acts, Names and Attributes, some comparisons are
permissible. This is pointed to in the verse: For God is the highest comparison.
The writer�s using the Sun as a unit of comparison to understand God�s acts,
Names and Attributes should be considered from this perspective.
P.S. 3. Unity and Oneness are
used to denote two different meanings. The original word which we translate
as Unity is Wahidiya, meaning God�s manifesting all His Names throughout the
universe or on any part of it. Oneness, the original of which is Ahadiya, means
God�s concentrating all or some of His Names on a single entity. This second
manifestation -the manifestations of Oneness- causes differentiation among species
and individuals. In this book, we have used them sometimes interchangeably and
sometimes each with its specific meaning.