What has Islam contributed to human
Islam is responsible for major human developments,
among them the following:
- Turning human thought away from superstition, love
for the unnatural and inexplicable, and monasticism toward a rational
approach, a love for reality, and a pious and balanced worldly life.
- Inspiring the urge for rational and scientific research
and proofs to verify the truth of established convictions.
- Opening the eyes of those accustomed to identifying
God with natural phenomena.
- Leading people away from the path of baseless speculation
and toward that of a rational understanding and sound reasoning based on observation,
experimentation, and research.
- Defining the limits and functions of sense-perception,
reason, intuition, and spiritual experience.
- Engendering a rapprochement between spiritual and material
- Harmonizing faith with knowledge and action.
- Replacing idolatry, the worship of human beings, and
polytheism with a firm faith in God�s Unity.
- Showing the path of spiritual evolution, moral emancipation,
and salvation through active participation in this world�s daily affairs.
- Those who proclaimed and worshipped powerful
personages realized that their false deities were people just like
- Emphasizing that no person could claim holiness, authority,
or over-lordship as a birthright, and that no one was born with the stigma
of untouchability, slavery, or serfdom.
- Inspiring the thoughts of humanity�s unity, human equality,
and real freedom. Many principles of good behavior, culture and civilization,
purity of thought and deed owe their origin to Islam. For example, Islam�s
social laws have infiltrated deep into human social life, its economic principles
have ushered in many movements and continue to do so, its laws of governance
continue to exert their influence, and its fundamental principles of law and
justice continue to form a perpetual source of guidance for humanity.
- Establishing a practical framework for all aspects
of international relations and regulating the laws of war and peace. This
framework, the first of its kind in history, established an ethical
code of war and foreign relations based on the ground of common humanity.
Islam, as Arthur Leonard says, has left such an indelible mark on the pages
of human history that it can never be effaced � that only when the world grows
will it be acknowledged in full.
- Founding one of the most brilliant civilizations in
history. This should come as no surprise, since the first revealed verse of
the Qur�an was: Read: In the Name of your Lord Who creates (96:1).
does the Qur�an order read when the local people have almost nothing to read?
Because they�and humanity�are to �read� the universe itself as the Book of
Creation, of which the Qur�an is the counterpart in letters or words. We are
to observe the universe and perceive its meaning and content so that we can
gain a deeper knowledge of the beauty and splendor of the Creator�s system
and the infinitude of His might. Thus we must penetrate the universe�s manifold
meanings, discover the Divine laws of nature, and establish a world in which
science and faith complement each other so that humanity can attain true bliss
in both worlds. Otherwise, as Bertrand Russell says, �unless man increases
in wisdom (and faith) as much as in knowledge, increase of knowledge will
be increase of sorrow,�1 and �Science teaches man to fly in the air like birds,
and to swim in the water like fishes, but man, without faith, cannot know
how to live on the earth.�2
If the purpose of education and worth of civilization is to raise the sense
of dignity and honor in individuals so that they improve their state and
consequently the state of society, Islamic civilization is proven to have been
a worthy one. There is ample evidence quoted by various writers showing how
Islam has succeeded in doing this to various peoples of various regions, e.g.
Isaac Taylor, in his speech delivered at the Church Congress of England about
the effects and influence of Islam on people, said:
When Muhammadanism is embraced, paganism, fetishism, infanticide and witchcraft
disappear. Filth is replaced by cleanliness and the new convert acquires personal
dignity and self-respect. Immodest dances and promiscuous intercourse of the
sexes cease; female chastity is rewarded as a virtue; industry replaces idleness;
license gives place to law; order and sobriety prevail; blood feuds, cruelty
to animals and slaves are eradicated. Islam swept away corruption and superstitions.
Islam was a revolt against empty polemics. It gave hope to the slave, brotherhood
to mankind, and recognition to the fundamental facts of human nature. The virtues
which Islam inculcates are temperance, cleanliness, chastity, justice, fortitude,
courage, benevolence, hospitality, veracity and resignation.. Islam preaches
a practical brotherhood, the social equality of all Muslims. Slavery is not
part of the creed of Islam. Polygamy is a more difficult question. Moses did
not prohibit it. It was practiced by David and it is not directly forbidden
in the New Testament. Muhammad limited the unbounded license of polygamy. It
is the exception rather than the rule... In resignation to God�s Will, temperance,
chastity, veracity and in brotherhood of believers they (the Muslims) set us
a pattern which we should do well to follow. Islam has abolished drunkenness,
gambling and prostitution, the three curses of the Christian lands. Islam has
done more for civilization than Christianity. The conquest of one-third of the
earth to his (Muhammad�s) creed was a miracle. (quoted by Ezzati, ibid., pp.
The Qur�an and scientific developments
The Qur�an contains everything that the Sublime Creator
deems necessary for us to make material and spiritual progress. Its most important
aims are to make God known to us, open the way to faith and worship, and organize
our individual and social life in such a way that we can realize perfect happiness
in both worlds. Thus it mentions things in proportion to their significance
and uses them to achieve these aims. Such matters as the pillars of faith, which
are the fundamentals of Islam as well as the foundations of human life and essentials
of worship, are explained elaborately, while other things are only hinted at
briefly. The meaning of a verse may be compared to a rosebud: It is hidden by
successive layers of petals, and a new meaning is perceived as each petal unfolds.
For example, the Qur�an hints at technological advances
and marks their final development by mentioning the Prophets� miracles. It encourages
us to fly by alluding implicitly to spaceships and aircrafts:
And to Solomon the wind; its morning course was
a month�s journey, and its evening course was a month�s journey (34:12).
It invites us to search for cures to all illnesses:
(Jesus said:) I also heal the blind and the leper,
and bring to life the dead, by the leave of God (3:49), and hints
that one day we will reach this goal and thus come to imagine that somehow
we are immune to death. The verse: Said he who possessed knowledge of the
Book: �I will bring it (the Queen of Yemen�s throne) to you (Solomon in
Jerusalem) before your glance returns to you,� (27:40) foretells that one
day images or even objects themselves would be transmitted in a moment through knowledge of the Divine Book
of the Universe, just as one with knowledge of the Book of Divine Revelation
brings objects from a great distance before one�s glance returns to him.
The Qur�an, being the book for every age and person,
has great depths of meaning. It is an infinite ocean into which all people
with knowledge and ability can dive deeply and, according to their capacity,
find its pearls and coral. The passage of time only rejuvenates its
scientific wisdom. Every generation discovers its wisdom anew, and its
secrets continue to be revealed over time.
The planets� spherical shape and rotations are indicated
in: He is the Lord of the heavens and Earth, and all that lies between them;
He is the Lord of the easts (37:15), for the concept of the �easts� introduces
infinite dimensions and differs for each location on Earth. A point on Earth
is in the east with respect to its western regions. Therefore the concept of
east differs at every point on Earth, and these form an ensemble of easts. This verse
indicates space�s relativity, the planets�
spherical shape, and Earth�s rotation.
French scientist Jacques Cousteau discovered that the
Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean have different chemical and biological
constitutions. After conducting undersea investigations at the Straits of Gibraltar
to explain this phenomenon, he concluded that �unexpected fresh water springs
issue from the southern and northern coasts of Gibraltar. These water sprouts
gush forth towards each other at angle of 45�, forming a reciprocal dam like
the teeth of a comb. Due to this fact, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean
cannot intermingle.� Afterwards, when shown the verse:
He has let forth the two seas, that meet together.
Between them a barrier, they do not overpass (55:19-20), Cousteau was
This verse further draws our attention to the plankton
composition of the seas, and to the flora and fish distributions that change
with variations in temperature. Many other Qur�anic verses shed light upon scientific
facts, and every person is invited to study them:
We made the Qur�an easy for reflection and study.
Will anybody study and reflect? (54:17).
How did Islam contribute to scientific
Obeying the Qur�an�s injunctions, Muslims studied both
the Book of Divine Revelation (the Qur�an) and the Book of Creation (the universe),
and founded a magnificent civilization. Scholars from all over Europe and elsewhere
benefited from the great Muslim centers of higher learning at Damascus, Bukhara,
Baghdad, Cairo, Fez, Qairawan, Zaytuna, Cordoba, Sicily, Isfahan, and Delhi.
Historians liken this Muslim golden age, in full flower when Europe was enduring
its dark Middle Ages, to a beehive. Roads were full of students, scientists,
and scholars travelling from one center of learning to another. Such �Renaissance�
men and women as Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi,
al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Abu al-Hasan al-Mas�udi, Ibn al-Haytham, al-Biruni, al-Ghazzali,
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Abu Bakr al-Razi were shining like stars in the high
sky of science.
In his monumental Introduction to the History of Science,
George Sarton divided time into chronological chapters and named each chapter
after that period�s most eminent scientist. From the mid-eighth century to the
mid-eleventh century, each of the seven 50-year period carries the name of a
Muslim scientist: �The Time of al-Khwarizmi,� �The Time of al-Biruni,� and so
on. Within these chapters we have the names of about 100 important Muslim scientists
and their main works.
Bertrand Russell, the famous British philosopher writes:
The supremacy of the East was not only military. Science,
philosophy, poetry, and the arts, all flourished� in the Muhammadan world
at a time when Europe was sunk in barbarism. Europeans, with unpardonable
insularity, call this period �The Dark Ages�: but it was only in Europe
that it was dark�indeed only in Christian Europe, for Spain, which was
Mohammedan, had a brilliant culture.� 
Robert Briffault, the renowned historian, acknowledges
in his The Making of Humanity:
It is highly probable that but for the Arabs, modern
European civilization would have never assumed that character which has enabled
it to transcend all previous phases of evolution. For although there is not
a single aspect of human growth in which the decisive influence of Islamic
culture is not traceable, nowhere is it so clear and momentous as in the genesis
of that power which constitutes the paramount distinctive force of the modern
world and the supreme course of its victory�natural sciences and the scientific
spirit... What we call science arose in Europe as a result of a new spirit
of inquiry; of new methods of investigation, of the method of experiment,
observation, measurement, of the development of Mathematics in a form unknown
to the Greeks. That spirit and those methods were introduced into the European
world by the Arabs.
For the first 500 years of its existence, the realm
of Islam was the most civilized and progressive portion of the world.
Studded with splendid cities, gracious mosques and quiet universities, the
Muslim East offered a striking contrast to the Christian West, which was
sunk in the night of the Dark Ages. It retained its vigor and remained
ahead of Christian Europe until the terrible disasters of the thirteenth
During the tenth-century, Muslim Cordoba was Europe�s
most civilized city, the wonder and admiration of the time. Travelers from the
north heard with something like fear of the city that contained 900 public baths
and 70 libraries with hundreds of thousands of volumes. Yet whenever the rulers
of Leon, Navarre, or Barcelona needed surgeons, architects, dressmakers, or
musicians, they applied to Cordoba.61 The Muslims� literary influence was so
vast that, for example, the Bible and liturgy had to be translated into Arabic
for the Christian community�s use. The account given by Alvaro, a Christian
zealot and writer, shows vividly how even non-Muslim Spaniards were attracted
to Muslim literature:
My fellow Christians delight in the poems and romances
of the Arabs. They study the works of Muhammadan theologians and
philosophers, not in order to refute them, but to acquire a correct and
elegant Arabic style. Where today can a layman be found who reads the
Latin commentaries on Holy Scriptures? Who is there that studies the
Gospels, the Prophets, the Apostles? Alas, the young Christians who are
most conspicuous for their talents have no knowledge of any literature or
language save the Arabic; they read and study with avidity Arabian books;
they amass whole libraries of them at a vast cost, and they everywhere
sing the praises of the Arabian world...� 
Bertrand Russell, The Impact of
Science on Society (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1951), 121.
Thomas Arnold, The Legacy of Islam
(Oxford: 1931, 1960).
Dozy, Reinhart P. (tr.), Indiculus
Nasr, S. Hossein.
Science and Civilization in Islam. London: 1987.
Nasr, S. Hossein.
Sufi Essays. Albany, NY: SUNY Press: 1991.
Nursi, Said. Sozler (The Words, 2
vols.). Istanbul: 1958.
Asrin Getirdigi Tereddutler I (Questions This Modern Age
Puts to Islam). Izmir: 1990.